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Journal Articles/Papers

The following is a list of the journal articles that have been prepared for viewing online as pdf documents (Adobe Acrobat reader required - visit www.adobe.com and download (free)). Hold down [Ctrl] then press [F] to search for a paper.

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  United Service, Volume 68, Number 1, March 2017

Autumn 2017 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Institute News

President’s Column – Paul Irving

Opinion

Editorial: Towards a new American isolationism? – David Leece

Institute Proceedings

The 2016 Sir Hermann Black Lecture: the year in review – David Leece
2016 was characterised inter alia by a confident, assertive China; the United States stepping back from its global leadership; autocratic, nationalistic and hegemonic leaders in Russia, Turkey, Iran, and China; weak liberal democracies in the West; civil wars in the Middle East; the contraction of Islamic State’s caliphate; and terrorism globally. The year ended with the global outlook very uncertain and Australia needing to reassess its defence needs.
Defence industry: a fundamental input to defence capability – Chris Jenkins
Through its 2016 Defence white paper and its accompanying defence industry policy statement, the Australian government has changed the way it engages with Australia’s defence industry. Chris Jenkins describes these changes and how defence industry is responding, using his own company as an example.
Maritime strategy and Australia’s future in an Asia-Pacific century – Michael Evans
Despite being the world’s largest island, Australia lacks a maritime consciousness. In a globalised world increasingly dominated by Asian economic and military power, Australian defence thinking must undergo a philosophical change. A credible maritime narrative and strategy need to be developed.

Book Reviews

The shot by Gary Ramage with Mark Abernethy – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Gary Ramage, a former infantry soldier, is one of Australia’s best known war photographers. The Shot is a biography of his life and achievements to date.
Australia’s American alliance edited by Peter J. Dean, Stephan Frühling and Brendan Taylor – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
The Australia - United States (US) alliance has been crucial to Australian foreign and defence policy since 1951. This book focuses on Australian perspectives and policy choices.
Honour denied: Teddy Sheean, a Tasmanian hero … and other brave warriors of the Royal Australian Navy by Dr Tom Lewis – reviewed by Ian Pfennigwerth
This book outlines the early life and subsequent naval career of Edward Sheean, who went down with HMAS Armidale in 1942 in the Timor Sea while still firing his anti-aircraft gun.
Air battle For Burma: allied pilots’ fight for supremacy by Bryn Evans – reviewed by Bob Treloar
This is a well-researched history of the air war over Burma in Wold War II. An engaging and informative read, it is also an exciting account of the air battle and of the men who fought it.
Dreadful lady over the Mekong Delta: an analysis of RAAF Canberra operations in the Vietnam War by Bob Howe – reviewed by Doug Roser
This book gives the context for and analyses the operations of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) Canberra bombers in the Vietnam conflict.
The assassination complex: inside the government’s secret drone warfare programme by Jeremy Scahill and the staff of The Intercept – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This book reveals the United States government’s drone [armed remotely-piloted aircraft] programme and America's policy in prosecuting the war against terrorists.
Modern snipers by Leigh Neville – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This is an account of 21st century sniping. Since 9/11, there have been major changes in the way snipers are employed and a rapid evolution in their weapons, equipment and training.
The good neighbour: Australian peace support operations in the Pacific Islands, 1980–2006. Volume 5. Official history of peacekeeping, humanitarian and post–cold war operations by Bob Breen – reviewed by Marcus Fielding ..
This book records Australia's efforts to support peace in the Pacific Islands from 1980 to 2006, including the deployment of Australian diplomatic, military and policing resources.
Bravo Zulu: honours and awards to Australian naval people Volume 1: 1900 - 1974 by Ian Pfennigwerth - reviewed by Tom Frame
Bravo Zulu (meaning 'well done' in naval parlance) catalogues the honours and awards made to Australian naval personnel between 1900 and 1974.
Billy: My life as a teenage POW by Lynette Silver and Billy Young – reviewed by Ken Broadhead
Billy recounts the life of a World War II Australian soldier, Private Billy Young, who fought in the Battle for Malaya and Singapore; and then became a prisoner of the Japanese.

Cover

HMAS Ballarat's MH-60R Seahawk helicopter is seen winching a passenger from the flight deck. Ballarat, an Anzac-class frigate, was transiting though Australia’s North-West Shelf demonstrating Navy’s ability to protect Australia’s borders and offshore maritime interests. Australia's need for a better defined maritime strategy is discussed by Professor Michael Evans [Photo: Department of Defence].

  United Service, Volume 67, Number 4, December 2016

Summer 2016 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Institute News

National President’s Column – Simon Cullen

Opinion

Editorial: Pivots, tilts and ‘brexits’ in the Indo-Pacific Region – David Leece
Sub-Editorial: Australia’s pivot to Melanesia – Rhea Matthews

Institute Proceedings

Raising and training the Australian Army – Peter (‘Gus’) Gilmore
With Plan Beersheba now well into implementation and generating one of three combat brigades, in rotation, always ready for operations, Forces Command’s priorities are shifting to preparedness, modernisation and resilience. It is seeking to ensure that sophisticated technology, focused preparedness and evolved resilience combine to optimise the output it can deliver in the defence of Australia’s interests.
Constraints on the formulation of Australian defence policy – Neil James
Mr James’ duties with the Australia Defence Association have afforded him privileged access within the higher reaches of the Australian Defence Organisation for nearly 13 years. Such sustained access is uncommon and through it he has gained valuable insights into the formulation of Australian defence policy. Here he enunciates 10 major influences with which policy analysts and others involved in defence policy formulation must contend.
The Anglo-French 1916 Somme Campaign was the major element in a series of simultaneous Allied offensives coordinated by the French designed to eventually destroy the German and Austrian armies by attrition. Four Australian infantry divisions contributed to the Allied offensive: 5th at Fromelles; and 1st, 2nd and 4th at Pozières and Mouquet Farm. A reappraisal of the Somme Campaign, based on research since the official histories were written, is presented.

Contributed History Essay

Dhofar insurgency: lessons not too late for learning – James P. Ayliffe
In the 1960s and 1970s, a communist-inspired insurgency in the Dhofar province of Oman potentially threatened the entire region. Sultan Qaboos, with the aid of British loan and contract officers, prevented a rebel takeover. Here, a former contract officer summarises lessons that may have application to the conduct of future counter-insurgency campaigns.

Book Reviews

On ops: lessons and challenges for the Australian Army since East Timor edited by Tom Frame and Albert Palazzo – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
On Ops critically examines the transformation in the Australian Army since troops were deployed to East Timor in 1999. It addresses the issues from a range of perspectives including: politics and policy, strategy and tactics, intelligence and logistics, health care and ethics.
Command and control: nuclear weapons, the Damascus Accident, and the illusion of safety by Eric Schlosser – Reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Eric Schlosser tells the story of the urgent effort by American scientists, policymakers, and military officers to ensure that tens of thousands of nuclear weapons located around the globe could not be stolen, sabotaged, used without permission, or detonated inadvertently.
Charles Bean: if people really knew: one man's struggle to report the Great War and tell the truth by Ross Coulthart – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Coulthart compares Bean’s contribution to Great War literature as a journalist and as an historian. He concludes that Bean was a better historian than journalist. Coulthart, though, is the reverse. Military historians may not find Charles Bean sufficiently objective and balanced.
Anzac Day then and now edited by Tom Frame – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Published on the centenary of the first Anzac Day in 1916, this book is a collection of perspectives on Anzac Day and how it has been marked in Australia. It explores why Anzac Day appears to mean so many different things to different people.

Cover

The Australian Army’s new Mark 47 L40-2 lightweight automatic grenade launcher during acceptance and testing trials at Port Wakefield, South Australia, on 2 September 2016 – in this issue, the Forces Commander, Major General ‘Gus’ Gilmore, describes raising, training, equipping and preparing the Australian Army for operations [Photo: Department of Defence].

  United Service, Volume 67, Number 3, September 2016

Spring 2016 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Institute News

President’s Column – David Leece

Seminar Proceedings

2016 Seminar on Military Strategy: "The strategic significance of cyber and space" – a summary – David Leece
Australia's 2016 Defence White Paper emphasised the threat to government and society posed by warfare in cyberspace and space and enhanced the Defence Force’s resourcing for dealing with it. The Institute's 2016 Seminar on Military Strategy examined the strategic significance of cyber and space, assessed the likelihood and effects of warfare in and through these domains, and outlined Australia’s response to the threat.
2016 Blamey Oration: The cyber and space domains in 21st century warfare – Steve Meekin
Today, war can be conducted not only on, in or through the land, sea or air, but also through cyberspace and space. This paper describes these newer domains of warfare and details where they fit within Australia’s recently released defence policy and cyber security strategy. Australia is increasing its investment in space and cyber capabilities and has the capability to disrupt, deny and degrade the computer networks of malicious cyber actors.
Cyber warfare and its implications for Australia – Clive Lines
Cyber security is a top national security priority for Australia as cyber intrusions are a persistent threat. Herein, Mr Lines differentiates between cyber war/cyber attack and low-level cyber activity; explains their likelihood and effect; and outlines Australia’s response.
The Australian response to potential space warfare – Stephen Osborne and Andrew Jolley
Militaries and civilians around the world are becoming critically dependent upon space capabilities, leaving them uncomfortably vulnerable. Warfare in space has the potential to render large parts of the domain unusable, with significant secondary effects in the other physical domains. Australia is investing in space situational awareness, which underpins assured access to space, and supports the strengthening of international norms regarding the responsible use of space.
Training and education for cybersecurity, cyber defence and cyber warfare – Jill Slay
Australia’s cybersecurity, cyber defence and cyber war education and training policy is foundational to the establishment, development and enhancement of every other cybersecurity policy. As the threats from advanced technologies rapidly escalate at the global level, Australia will need new mechanisms and agencies to respond, of which an enhanced science, technology, engineering and mathematics approach is a vital one.
Military aspects of cyber warfare – Marcus Thompson
The Australian Defence Force, well-practised in cyber warfare at the strategic level, is developing the capability to engage in cyber warfare at the operational and tactical levels. Here, Marcus Thompson outlines planning considerations; describes the operational and tactical employment of active and passive cyber defence measures; and explains what it takes to be a cyber warrior.

Book Reviews

Stone cold: the extraordinary true story of Len Opie – Australia’s deadliest soldier by Andrew Faulkner – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Len Opie carved a reputation as one of the country's fiercest infantrymen through three wars – World War II, Korea and South Vietnam – spanning 30 years. Action-packed, Stone Cold gives rich life to an extraordinary warrior and one of Australia's greatest soldiers.
John Jess, seeker of justice: the role of Parliament in the HMAS Voyager tragedy by Elizabeth McCarthy – reviewed by John Ellis
This biography of federal MP John Jess focuses on the second Royal Commission into the collision between HMA Ships Voyager and Melbourne on 10 February 1964. It will be of great interest to all Australians familiar with the collision and subsequent events.

Cover

An artist’s depiction of a United States Air Force early warning satellite – the proceedings of the Institute’s 2016 Seminar on Military Strategy, which addressed "The Strategic Significance of Cyber and Space" [Source: United States Air Force Space Command]

  United Service, Volume 67, Number 2, June 2016

Spring 2016 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Institute News

National President’s Column – Brent Espeland

Opinion

Editorial: The strategic outlook and Australia’s response – David Leece
Sub-Editorial: The ADF’s preparedness for climate change – David Leece
Letter: Royal United Services Institute Libraries – Marcus Fielding

Institute Proceedings

Future challenges for Australia's alliance with the United States – Tom Switzer
The United States alliance has been, is, and will remain, the centrepiece of Australian foreign policy for the foreseeable future. But it will change. For the United States, China is its main strategic rival; for Australia, China provides the opportunity for a rewarding trade and commercial partnership. Rather than choose between then, Australia at times will have to ride two horses at once and so must learn to play a more demanding diplomatic game.
Climate change, national security and the Australian Defence Force – Chris Barrie
With global surface warming currently tracking towards +3.7°C (rather than the international +2°C target) by 2060, compounded by global population rising to 10 billion, climate change and its concomitant effects pose as national, regional and global security threat multipliers. Compared with its allies, the Australian Defence Force is ill-prepared for these challenges and urgent action is needed to remedy the situation.

Defence Policy

Australia's 2016 Defence White paper: a summary – Rhea Matthews, Dominique Spoelder and Michael Thurston
Australia’s 2016 Defence White Paper is the government’s plan to ensure the security of Australia and its interests over the next two decades and beyond. It includes an assessment of the strategic outlook and a fully costed plan for a more capable, agile and potent defence force. Here, members of the RUSI Special Interest Group on Strategy summarise its main provisions. They conclude that, with the future uncertain, the costed plan seeks to cover all bases.

History Note

Not shunned by the Navy: the strange story of HMAS Armidale's Lieutenant Commander David Richards - Tom Lewis
For many years a story of how the Royal Australian Navy badly treated the commander of HMAS Armidale after his ship was sunk has been promulgated. But it now seems this is not true. Commander David Richards RD RANR was, despite stories to the contrary, an honoured and respected member of the Royal Australian Navy.

Book Reviews

Winning the peace: Australia's campaign to change the Asia-Pacific by Andrew Carr – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Winning the Peace explores how Australian governments have engaged with Asia over the last thirty years, attempting to use their defence and foreign policies, and military and diplomatic engagement and persuasion, to shape the region.
The rise of China vs the logic of strategy by Edward N. Luttwak – reviewed by Michael Thurston
This book provides an alternative outlook on China. It uses strategic theory to assess the implications of China’s strong economic growth alongside its rapid military development. It concludes that China can achieve one or the other, but not both simultaneously.
The Western Front: an Australian perspective by Phil Dwyer, Helen Duffy and Bruce Postle – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This is a beautifully presented and well researched large format (coffee table) book that provides an evocative multi-dimensional perspective; and is probably the next best thing to physically visiting the Western Front.
Stepping into a minefield: a life dedicated to landmine clearance around the world by Ian Mansfield – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This is an account of Mansfield’s pioneering efforts to set up a civilian programme to clear landmines in Afghanistan and later in Laos and Bosnia. It also outlines the political, cultural and security ‘minefields’ that Mansfield had to navigate
The Fighter by Paul Warren with Jeff Apter – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This is the story of Private Paul Warren, 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, who lost his right leg in Afghanistan, and of his subsequent physical and psychological rehabilitation leading eventually to his competing in the 2014 Invictus Games in London.
Preserving our proud heritage: the customs and traditions of the Australian Army by Leslie Terrett and Stephen Taubert – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This is a well-researched and magnificently presented large format book that covers every aspect of the Army’s customs and traditions. It is an authoritative reference and an attractive ‘coffee table’ display.

Cover

An artist’s impression of the French DCNS Shortfin Barracuda Block 1A diesel- electric attack submarine chosen in April for the Royal Australian Navy to replace the Collins-class boats. [Source: DCNS]

  United Service, Volume 67, Number 1, March 2016

Autumn 2016 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Opinion

Editorial: The global security outlook – David Leece
Sub-Editorial: The Wynter affair and the Institute’s independence – David Leece

Institute Proceedings

The 2015 Sir Herman Black Lecture: the year in review – Peter Hartcher
Mr Hartcher examines the strategic character of the world in 2015 and comments on its significance for Australia’s national security. After reviewing Australian government responses, he concludes that Australia should be neither fearful nor paranoid, but should rethink its position.
The conflict in Syria, the involvement of Islamic State, and the refugee crisis in Europe – Clive Williams
Professor Williams explains the background to the civil war which has been raging in Syria since 2011, describes the situation as at October 2015, and addresses some of the war’s consequences, such as the emergence of Islamic State and an overwhelming flow of refugees towards Europe.
From mountaineer to dog-face soldier: an Australian's perspective of operations with the United States Army in Afghanistan in 2014 as Deputy Commanding General in Regional Command, East – Phillip Bridie
Australian Army Reserve Brigadier, Phillip Bridie, recounts his experiences in Afghanistan in 2014 as a deputy commanding general of two United States infantry divisions in Regional Command – East during the transition to Afghan control.
Informing and influencing the defence and national security debate: the Royal United Services Institute of New South Wales – David Leece
The Royal United Services Institute is an independent, apolitical, not-for-profit, public education association in the field of defence and national security. Here, its president outlines the Institute’s evolution over its 127-year history and describes its current programmes and services.

Book Reviews

Anzac Cove to Afghanistan: the history of the 3rd Brigade by Glenn Wahlert – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
The Australian Army’s 3rd Brigade, one of Australia’s premier fighting infantry formations, has a proud history of service from Gallipoli to Afghanistan. Wahlert captures the breadth and depth of that history and communicates it in plain English.
Battle winners: Australian artillery in the Western Desert 1940-1942 by Alan H. Smith – reviewed by Ken Broadhead
This is a comprehensive record of the contribution of field artillery to the success of battles involving the 2nd Australian Imperial Force in the Western Desert. It is a worthy addition to the record of Australian artillery, its command and control, and its key players.
The unravelling: high hopes and missed opportunities in Iraq by Emma Sky – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This is Sky’s memoir of her experiences in Iraq between 2003 and 2010. Through it, Sky has become the unlikely eulogist of the war. Her account is insightful, reflective and well considered. The sub-title, "High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq", is as fitting an epitaph as any.
Skilfully drilled: a history of the Australian Instructional Corps 1921-1955 by Roland Millbank – reviewed by Michael Hough
This is the story of the Australian Instructional Corps which was responsible for the all-corps training of the Citizen Army throughout Australia from 1921 to 1955. It is a readable and well-researched resource for the specialist reader or researcher of military history.

Cover

Australian Army soldier, Private Brendan Winter, providing force protection at the Taji Military Complex, Iraq, on 12 August 2015, where Australian and New Zealand military personnel are training members of the Iraqi Army in tactics, techniques and procedures for use in their fight against Daesh (Islamic State). The conflict in Iraq and Syria is discussed in the papers by Peter Hartcher and Clive Williams. [Photo: Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 66, Number 4, December 2015

Summer 2015 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

National President's Column

An Australian Military Covenant – Brent Espeland

Opinion

Time for a new grand strategy – Clive Williams
An Australian position on East Asia – Ian Crawford
Letters: Islam in Australia – Jacob Blitman; David Watts

Institute Proceedings

The Royal Australian Navy in the 21st Century – Stuart Mayer
Our sea lines of communication remain the lifelines for Australia's prosperity, but we face numerous challenges to their security. The Australian Defence Force is responding to these challenges by developing the capacity to deploy amphibious task groups, as well as standalone naval units, to trouble spots where warranted.
An effective and affordable defence policy for a changing world – Brian Toohey
Toohey traces the evolution of Australia’s defence policy since World War II – from forward defence, to defending the continent and its approaches, to security with Asia, and how this is now being challenged by the rise of China. He assesses the Chinese threat and proposes an effective and affordable strategic posture and force structure for Australia based on that assessment.
China's activities in the South China Sea – James Brown
Professor Brown reviews China’s recent activities in the South China Sea, including land reclamation, within the broader context of strategic competition between China and the United States. He examines why China is taking this approach, despite it undermining China’s external relationships; and concludes by documenting Australia’s response to these developments.
The 1915 Gallipoli August Offensive Centenary Commission of Inquiry – Bryce Fraser
The 1915 August Offensive was designed to break the stalemate that had existed on the Gallipoli Peninsula since the initial landing on 25 April. Its result was an enlarged beachhead ‘cage’ for the Allied forces. The Inquiry concluded that the Allies were out-generalled by their Turkish opponents and there were failures at many command levels within the Allied forces.

Book Reviews

Monash – the soldier who shaped Australia by Grantlee Kieza – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Monash is a quality biography, but it does not include any new information or insights. Nevertheless, if you have not read a biography about Monash before, then it is recommended.
East Timor intervention: a retrospective on INTERFET by Dr John Blaxland (Editor) – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This book is the proceedings of a two-day international conference held to mark the 15 anniversary of the liberation of East Timor in 1999. It contains a significant collection of different and sometimes conflicting perspectives on the INTERFET intervention.
Gallipoli by Jenny Macleod – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Gallipoli recounts the historical facts surrounding the campaign and then considers how it has been remembered, from the immediate aftermath to the present day and the effect it has had on the societies that participated in those events.
The Ottoman defence against the ANZAC landing: 25 April 1915 by Mesut Uyar – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
The Ottoman Defence is the first detailed account in English from the Turkish perspective. It enhances our understanding of why the Ottoman Forces proved so successful in containing and ultimately defeating the Allied invasion.
The story of Australia's flags: our flags, standards, guidons, colours, banners, battle honours and ensigns by Major General Gordon Maitland – reviewed by David Leece
Australia's Flags traces the development of flags for identification of military forces from Roman times. It then traces the development of Australia’s flags, both military and civilian, before providing a comprehensive description of the flags our nation has adopted.

Cover

The United States guided-missile destroyer, USS Lassen (DDG-82), which on 27 October 2015 conducted a ‘freedom of navigation’ patrol through the Spratly Islands passing within 12-nautical-miles of Subi Reef, a Chinese artificial island. As James Brown explains beginning on page 21, China claims a 12-nauticalmile territorial limit around artificial islands it has built in the Spratly archipelago. [Photo: US Navy 7 Fleet official photo – Wikimedia Commons]

  United Service, Volume 66, Number 3, September 2015

Spring 2015 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Opinion

Understanding Indonesia - Ian Ingleby
Letter: 21st century Facist Imperialism - Bryn Thomas
Letter: Islam in Australia - Hedley Thomas

Diaologue Proceedings

3rd International Defence and Security Dialogue – Australia, Indonesia and Regional Security: Introduction – David Leece
Australia’s partnership with Indonesia is our most important regional defence relationship. Australia and Indonesia share strategic interests and could co-operate to mutual advantage. The Dialogue focused on opportunities for, and impediments to, strategic co-operation.
The 2015 Blamey Oration: The strategic outlook for the Indo-Pacific Region – Dennis Richardson
Globally, there are two big strategic developments: an increase in ungoverned spaces which are attracting extremist groups; and changing power relativities, especially the rise of China. The United States-China relationship will remain crucial as China looks to its military power-projection capabilities to protect its broadening strategic interests. China’s land reclamation in the South China Sea raises the question of intent and the risk of miscalculation.
Jokowi's Indonesia – Damien Kingsbury
Joko Widodo’s 2014 election as Indonesia’s President left him politically weak. He has been unable to resolve the Papua issue or meet the electorate’s high expectations of ‘clean government’, economic improvement, or military reform. Islamic extremism now has links to Islamic State. Indonesia remains a leader in ASEAN, but reactivation of the death penalty has alienated other foreign governments, including Australia, with whom relations are cool.
Meeting the defence and security challenges over the next two decades: an Indonesian perspective– Agus Widjojo
The rise of China is constraining Southeast Asian states. The region’s archipelagic seas are of immense strategic importance. - ration has been plagued by cultural differences and mistrust. Australia could assist Indonesia build its external defence capability. The two countries also could share intelligence, but first would need to build mutual trust. Engagement in combined military operations is a long way off.
Meeting the defence and security challenges over the next two decades: an Australian perspective – Peter Leahy
Indonesia is not a threat to Australia. It expects Australia to honour its territorial integrity and to secure its southern border. Australia and Indonesia can become strategic partners to mutual benefit. Major shared interests include protection of the sea lines of communication, and countering terrorism. An overstretched Australian Defence Force should focus on co-operation with Indonesia, but developing a meaningful defence relationship with Indonesia will not be easy.
Dialogue Summary – David Leece
Provided Australia and Indonesia can overcome the mutual distrust which continues to plague the relationship, especially at the political level, there is scope for them to co-operate on coping with China’s rise, protecting the sea lines of communication through the region, countering terrorism, sharing intelligence, and building the TNI’s external defence capability. Overcoming mistrust will be difficult, however, and must start with the national leaders.

Book Reviews

Maestro John Monash: Australia's greatestcitizen general by Tim Fischer – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This book is a long essay making the arguement to post-humously promote Sir John Monash to the rank of Field Marshal. In doing so, it provides a synopsis of Monash’s life.
Combat colonels of the AIF in the Great War by David Clare Holloway – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Combat Colonels is a biographical reference book listing all the commanding officers who led Australian infantry, pioneer, light horse, camel corps, artillery and flying corps units during World War I.
Bearing Witness: the remarkable life of Charles Bean, Australia's greatest war correspondent by Peter Rees – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This is a remarkably insightful biography of C. E. W. Bean – Australia’s most famous war correspondent and war historian.

Cover

The 2015 Blamey Orator and Medallist, Mr Dennis Richardson, AO, Secretary of Defence, Australia. [Photo: Department of Defence].

  United Service, Volume 66, Number 2, June 2015

Winter 2015 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Opinion

Editorial: Fascist imperialism: a 21st century national security challenge – David Leece
Letter: 2014 Sir Herman Black Lecture – Marcus Fielding
Letter: The Battle for Australia – Craig Wilcox

Institute Proceedings

Islam in Australia in 2015: an Australian Muslim perspective – Mona Shindy
Islam is a religion based on submission to the will and laws of God, under which a woman is equal to a man and the killing of innocent people is a sin. Terrorism, an abhorrent act, has nothing to do with Islam. A ‘victim mentality’ evident in Australian Islamic society is fodder for terrorist recruiters. Breaking the terrorist cycle must involve communication, education and equity.
The 1989 Tiananmen Square Incident – Michael Flynn and John Hutcheson
Michael Flynn and John Hutcheson were in Beijing during the April – June 1989 Tiananmen Square Incident when the authorities negotiated with ‘demonstrators for democracy’ but ultimately employed military force to clear the Square and city centre of demonstrators. They recount their observations during the incident.
Le Chambon-sur-Lignon: a Jewish refuge in World War II France – Peter Grose
Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, a remote mountain village with Huguenot and pacifist sympathies near France’s border with Switzerland, served as a safe haven for some 3500 Jews and 1500 other refugees in France in World War II. Two overland escape routes were developed from the village to Switzerland and an armed Resistance formed as liberation became an increasing possibility.

Contributed Paper

The 1915 Dardanelles Campaign – Stephen Chambers
In late 1914, Britain and France determined to open the Dardanelles by military force. A naval-only campaign was launched in February-March 1915. While it achieved some early successes, the heavily mined passage leading to the Narrows could not be overcome and the attempt was abandoned with heavy losses of men and ships.

Obituaries

Captain Bede Tongs, OAM, MM – Christopher Dawson
Bede Tongs was among the last of the Kokoda Trail heroes, veterans of the bitter fighting across the Owen Stanley Range in Papua New Guinea in World War II.
Brigadier Keith Stringfellow, RFD, ED – Kevin Mahony and Peter Court
Keith Stringfellow was a World War II commando, who post-war played a key role in the establishment of the Australian Intelligence Corps and rose to command the 8th Task Force.

Book Reviews

The war with the Ottoman Empire by Jeffrey Grey – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This book examines the involvement of Australians in this part of the Great War, portraying the perspectives of both sides. It is a most comprehensive and balanced account.
In all respects ready: Australia's navy in World War One by David Stevens – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This book presents an authoritative account of the Australian navy’s involvement in World War I.
Empires of the dead: How one man's vision led to the creation of WWI's war graves by David Crane – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Empires of the Dead is a history of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission and of how the cemeteries for which it is responsible came into existence.
Remembrance: 100 years, 100 memorials, 100 Australian stories by Geoff Hocking with Christopher Atkins and Julie Millowick – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Remembrance presents pictures of 100 Australian war memorials selected from across Australia and from Turkey, France and Belgium.
Team 19 in Vietnam: an Australian soldier at war by Lieutenant Colonel David Millie, MBE (Retired) – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
An Australian Army Training Team major recounts his experiences as operations officer of Military Assistance Command Vietnam Team 19 in Quang Tri Province in 1968-1969.
The good international citizen: Australian peacekeeping in Asia, Africa and Europe, 1991-1993 by David Horner and John Connor – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This official history explores Australia's involvement in: Cambodia (1991–99); Western Sahara (1991–94); former Yugoslavia (1992–2004); Iraq (1991); Maritime Interception Force operations (1991–99); and inspection of weapons of mass destruction facilities in Iraq (1991–99).
America's man of destiny: an intimate biography of General Eisenhower by Kevin McCann – reviewed by Priscilla Leece
This short biography of Eisenhower prior to his election to the United States presidency is a well-written and succinct portrait of the man, the soldier and his achievements.

Cover

A collage of World War I combat aircraft: (from the top) a British Arco DH.5 single-seat fighter; a German Fokker Dr.1 Dreideeker fighter; and a British Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8 two-seat reconnaissance and bomber aircraft [Photos: Australian International Airshow and Aerospace and Defence Exposition Avalon 2015].

  United Service, Volume 66, Number 1, March 2015

Full size pdf of the Autumn 2015 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Opinion

Australia, Indonesia and Regional Security – David Leece
Letter: Army’s Armoured Cavalry Regiment – Allan Murray
Letter: Victoria Barracks, Sydney – Kevin Mahony

Institute Proceedings

The 2014 Sir Herman Black Lecture: The year in review – Peter Hartcher
Hartcher examines the strategic character of the world in 2014. He identifies several trends: re-emergence of imperialism; reversion of ‘post-modern’ states to ‘modern’; and Australia’s strategic vulnerability but economic opportunity. Australia needs to rethink its strategic dependence on the United States, cease kowtowing to China and act in its own self-interest.
The 2015 Defence White paper: challenges facing Defence – Alan Dupont
Australia’s next Defence White Paper will shape the Defence Force for the next 20 years. It will need to address the fraying of the Pax Americana, China’s rise and terrorism. It will need to extend the existing maritime strategy to address the space and cyber domains; build partnerships with Asia; and formulate a balanced force structure within government fiscal constraints.
Islam: its origin, philosophy and laws – James Carmel
Islam is a religion of submission. The religion is not unified. The main division is between Sunni and Shi’a, and has persisted since the death of Muhammad. Once a majority Islamic population is achieved in a community, generally Shariah will be enforced as the law of the land.
Border security and counter terrorism: the New Zealand experience – Colin Smith
Islamic extremism has necessitated nation-states to place renewed emphasis on border security. Informed by intelligence sharing among like-minded nations, New Zealand has developed and is implementing cost-effective counter-terrorism and targeted goods inspection measures at the nation’s borders.

Contributed History Note

The Scots at Gallipoli – Christopher Dawson
Scotland has as much reason to mourn its dead on Gallipoli as Australia. The intensity of the fighting and the horrendous casualties suffered by the infantry of the 52nd Division, particularly in the battles of June 28 and July 12, 1915, well deserve the description, a ‘Second Flodden’.

Book Reviews

The bombing war: Europe 1939-1945 by Richard Overy – reviewed by Alan H. Smith
Historian Richard Overy has written a masterpiece that covers every conceivable facet of the Axis and Allies’ bombing war and assesses its successes and failures. It is a riveting read.
Australia's secret war: how trade unions sabotaged Australian Military Forces in World War II by Hal G. P. Colebatch – reviewed by Rowan Tracey
Australia's Secret War tells the shocking story of a war waged from 1939 to 1945 by certain Australian trade unions against Australia’s fighting forces when the nation faced its gravest peril.
Why we lost: a general's inside account of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars by Lieutenant General Daniel Bolger (U.S. Army Retired) – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Bolger’s strategic case is that the United States military should have left Afghanistan and Iraq after the combat-operations phases and never started down the road of counter-insurgency and nation-building.
Australia's defence: towards a new era? edited by Peter J. Dean, Stephan Frühling and Brendan Taylor – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Australia's Defence examines the domestic and international context of Australia’s defence policy, Australian strategy, and the size and state of our armed forces.
Charles Bean's Gallipoli Illustrated edited by Philip Bradley – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Bradley has combined extracts from Charles Bean’s diary from Gallipoli with dozens of never before seen photographs taken by soldiers; and has added some explanatory comments.

Cover

HMAS Anzac (150), HMAS Melbourne (05) and HMAS Perth (157) conduct a formation departure from Sydney, on 12 February 2015 during work-up exercises prior to Anzac and Melbourne deploying overseas. Professor Alan Dupont explains that the 2015 Defence White Paper will need to choose a replacement for the ANZAC-class frigates. [Photo: LSIS Paul McCallum, Department of Defence].

  United Service, Volume 65, Number 4, December 2014

Full size pdf of the Summer 2014 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Opinion

Letter: Russian annexation of Crimea - Don Faithfull
Letter: Errata: United Service 65 (2) June 2014 - Jerry Bishop

Policy Advice

Submission to the First Principles Review of Defence – RUSI Special Interest Group on Defence Industry
The present Defence capability development process devolves on a committee system that is grossly inefficient. We recommend that it be replaced by a new system styled on the ‘cabinet submission’ process.
Defence White Paper Submission – RUSI Special Interest Group on Strategy
The 2015 White Paper will need to formulate a credible, costeffective Defence Force able to exercise leadership in our neighbourhood, not one intended primarily to provide niche capabilities to allied forces in distant theatres. Such a defence force will not come cheaply, but is a vital national investment.

Institute Proceedings

Securing Australia's neighbourhood in 1914: a brief history of the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force – David Leece
This paper summarises the Institute’s Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (ANMEF) Centenary Seminar held on 30 September 2014. From September to December 1914, the ANMEF seized Rabaul and then occupied the other German possessions in the south-west Pacific. The campaign has enduring strategic and operational lessons for Australia.
The Australian War Memorial: its past and future – Brendan Nelson
The Australian War Memorial guards the soul of the nation – the record of the men and women who have served Australia in war and other operations, from the Sudan in 1885 until today. In making those stories accessible to the current generation, it shows us who we are as a people and what we stand for. That is why the Memorial is so important, not only to our past, but more so to our future.

Contributed History Note

The Battle for Australia 1942 –1945 – Charlie Lynn
The Battle for Australia commenced with the bombing of Darwin in the Northern Territory on 19 February 1942 and ended with the surrender of the Japanese imperial forces in Wewak in the Papua and New Guinea Mandated Territory on 15 August 1945.

Book Reviews

The wives of Henry the Eighth and the parts they played in history by Martin Hume – reviewed by Priscilla Leece.
This book is a study of 16th century European statecraft and of the way princesses from many lands were used as part of the political bargaining of the time.
Afghanistan: Australia's war – a photographic story of the nation's longest war and those who served by Gary Ramage and Ian McPhedran – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Afghanistan: Australia's War is printed in a ‘coffee table’ formand celebrates the contribution that Australian troops have made to the war in Afghanistan. It features hundreds of stunning images accompanied by the words of defence writer Ian McPhedran.
From Sydney Cove to Paddington Hill: the story of Victoria Barracks by John F. Kreckler – reviewed by Priscilla Leece
This book traces the evolution of Victoria Barracks, Sydney, beginning with the ‘Grog Mutiny’ up to Federation in 1901, providing a concise overview of 19 th century life in so doing.
Under new management: the Royal Australian Navy and the removal of Germany from the Pacific, 1914-15 by Ian Pfennigwerth – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, the Australian Fleet and the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force were tasked to remove the German presence from the Pacific. Under New Management provides a detailed account of the campaign.
The mystery of AE1: Australia's lost submarine and crew by Kathryn Spurling – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
The loss of HMA Submarine AE1 was the Royal Australian Navy’s first major tragedy. It marred an otherwise successful operation to seize the German possessions in New Guinea in the opening weeks of World War I.
Honours and awards of the Army by Major General Gordon Maitland – reviewed by David Leece
Honours and Awards is a beautifully written and presented compendium of the official awards and authorised unofficial awards which have been made to members of the Australian Army under both the former Imperial system and the more recent Australian system.

Cover

The German wireless station at Bitapaka, New Britain, seized by the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (ANMEF) on 11 September 1914. The proceedings of the Institute’s ANMEF Centenary Seminar held on 30 September 2014 are summarised on pp. 21 – 25. [Print: Oil, Charles Bryant, painted 1923, Australian War Memorial Art 03639]

  United Service, Volume 65, Number 3, September 2014

Full size pdf of the Spring 2014 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Opinion

Editorial: Amphibious Operations – David Leece
Letter: The changing character of war – Marcus Fielding

Institute Proceedings
Amphibious Operations Seminar

Amphibious operations: an introduction - David Leece
Its geo-strategic circumstances dictate that Australia adopts a maritime strategy, integral to which are amphibious operations. These involve the projection of a military force from the sea onto a hostile, or potentially hostile, shore and include assaults, withdrawals, raids and demonstrations. These operations and contemporary amphibious tactics are described. Australia is building a modern amphibious force modelled on United States and British amphibious forces.
Landing ship, landing craft and landing vehicle nomenclature – David Leece
The editor clarifies some common amphibious shipping nomenclature and acronyms, briefly describing the vessels and vehicles involved.
Case Study: The utility of amphibious forces in the 21st century – John Collins
This 2011 case-study demonstrates the utility of an integrated 21st century amphibious force. The critical enabler was the landing platform helicopter, HMS Ocean. An intended 7-week exercise evolved into a 7-month operation first in Libya and then Somalia spanning all amphibious roles.
Keynote Address: Australia's developing amphibious capability – Mark Campbell
The Australian Defence Force is on track to deliver a new joint amphibious capability based on two new Canberra-class landing helicopter dock (LHD) ships and focused initially on security, stabilisation, humanitarian assistance and disaster relief tasks. The first milestone is due towards the end of 2015. The full capability is due for delivery in 2017.
Amphibious logistics operations – Jay Bannister
Australia’s amphibious task group will have significant logistic capacity. Logistics, however, can be an enormous challenge for an amphibious force and the logistics plan must be flexible and responsive to the landing force scheme of manoeuvre. Seabasing, embarkation, disembarkation, sustainment at sea, bio security, health and other logistic challenges are discussed.

Contributed History Note

Seventy years ago: the Desert Air Force in Italy, 1944 – Bryn Evans
In May-June 1944, during the Italian campaign of World War II, the Luftwaffe mounted a desperate effort to counter Allied air superiority, but it would prove to be in vain.

Book Reviews

The backroom boys: Alfred Conlon and Army's Directorate of Research and Civil Affairs, 1942-46 by Graeme Sligo – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
The Backroom Boys is the remarkable story of how a varied group of talented intellectuals were drafted into the Australian Army in the dark days of 1942 and provided high-level policy advice to General Blamey and through him to the Government.
Climax at Gallipoli: the failure of the August offensive by Dr Rhys Crawley – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Climax at Gallipoli examines the performance of the Allies’ Mediterranean Expeditionary Force in the August Offensive of the Gallipoli Campaign rigorously and dispassionately. His message may put some objective balance back into the Anzac Centenary proceedings.
Australia and the Vietnam War by Peter Edwards – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This is a one-volume version of the nine-volume Official History of Australia's Involvement in Southeast Asian Conflicts 1948–1975 – the equivalent of C. E. W. Bean’s Anzac to Amiens (WWI) and Gavin Long’s The Six Years War (WWII).
The digger's view: WWI in colour by Juan Mahony – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
The Digger's View is a magnificently produced high quality book that is crammed with rare colourised photos and diary entries that provide a very personal perspective of some of the Australian soldiers who served during World War I

Cover

An artist’s impression of Australia’s two multi-purpose amphibious assault ships (LHD), HMA Ships Canberra and Adelaide, with their embarked helicopters and landing craft, mechanised (LCM-1E). The proceedings of the Institute’s Amphibious Operations Seminar held on 27 May 2014 commence on p. 7. [Photo: Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 65, Number 2, June 2014

Full size pdf of the Winter 2014 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Defence News

A centenary of submarine service in the Royal Australian Navy – Department of Defence
F35As to transform Australia’s air combat capability – Department of Defence

Opinion

Editorial: China’s growing strategic reach – David Leece
Sub-Editorial: Australia’s Army Reserve – David Leece

Institute Proceedings

The Russian annexation of Crimea in March 2014 – Graeme Gill
Russia’s opportunistic annexation of Crimea in March 2014 in the face of the West’s impotence has weakened the West globally and has strengthened Russia commensurately. Ukraine, in future, would be foolish to adopt an anti-Russian stance. There are significant costs for Russia and the balance is uncertain, but it is clear that the West has reaped what it sowed.
A United States Air Force fighter squadron's experiences in Afghanistan in 2011: a personal perspective – Karl D. Ingeman
Colonel Ingeman recounts some of his recent experiences as commander of 555th Fighter Squadron, United States Air Force, providing combat airpower on demand to United States and NATO combatant commanders in Afghanistan.
Some perspectives on the 1982 Falklands War informed by discussions with Argentine air force and navy officers – Michael R. Dunne
In the 1982 Falkland War, Argentine Air Force and Navy pilots acquitted themselves well against British warships. Informed by discussions with Argentine participants, here Mr Dunne shares his perspectives on the conflict.
The Australian Army's 2nd Division: an update – Peter Clay and Steve Smith
2nd Division, which contains most of the Australian Army Reserve, is modernising under Army’s Plan Beersheba. Progress is summarised and the delivery of a multi-role Reserve battle group for Army by the year 2015 is outlined.
Australia in the Second Anglo-Boer War – John Howells
The six Australian colonies, then the Commonwealth of Australia, each sent several contingents to fight in the Boer War. Over 500 Australians died. The major engagements in which Australians participated are described.

Contributed History Essay

The 8th Australian Infantry Brigade Group in World War II – David Leece
8th Brigade participated in the defence of Australia in 1942-43, first in Sydney and then in Western Australia. In 1944-45, it cleared the Japanese from the northern coast of New Guinea from Sio west to the Sepik River and then assisted 6th Australian Division to capture Wewak.

Book Reviews

Heroes before Gallipoli: Bita Paka and that one day in September by Kevin Meade – reviewed by John Hitchen
This is the story of the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force whose centenary we commemorate this year. Its central focus is the capture of the German wireless station at Bita Paka on 11 September 1914 which led to the surrender of German New Guinea.
Rendezvous with destiny: how Franklin D. Roosevelt and five extraordinary men took America into the war and into the world by Michael Fullilove – reviewed by Ken Broadhead
This book describes the highly unorthodox way in which United States President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR), conducted diplomacy in Europe in the early days of World War II. It tells of five disparate individuals who were the inspirations and instruments of FDR’s policy.
Anzac's long shadow: the cost of our national obsession by James Brown – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This short and hard-hitting book questions Australia’s national obsession with Anzac. It analyses how it has come about and why it is an issue of concern. Brown’s main target is the politicians and generals, but it is a must read for anyone who has served in the ADF too.
Out of the mountains: the coming age of the urban guerrilla by David Kilcullen – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Kilcullen analyses four global megatrends and concludes that future conflict is increasingly likely to occur in sprawling coastal cities, in underdeveloped regions of the Middle East, Africa, Latin America and Asia, and in highly networked, connected settings.

Cover

A United States F-16 Fighting Falcon fighter of 555th Fighter Squadron on combat air patrol over eastern Afghanistan in 2011. [Photo: United States Air Force]

  United Service, Volume 65, Number 1, March 2014

Full size pdf of the Autumn 2014 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Defence News

Royal Australian Navy – Natalie Staples
Australian Air Cadets Alumni is airborne – John Griffiths

Opinion

Editorial: Future conflict – David Leece
Letters: Surgeon John White – Christopher Warren; Author’s reply – Bruce Short; Erratum – Bruce Short

Institute Proceedings

The military revolution of limits and the changing character of war – Albert Palazzo
Dr Palazzo argues that humanity’s voracious consumption of raw materials cannot continue indefinitely. Our planet is reachingits natural limits and this will force revolutions in society, in the way conflicts are resolved and in the way wars are fought. States that think through the implications of the ‘revolution of limits’ will have an advantage over those that do not.
Science and technology: supporting Australia's national security – Alex Zelinsky
Australia’s Defence Science and Technology Organisation provides science and technology for safeguarding Australia. Dr Zelinsky outlines the organisation’s current strategy and describes its seven, client-focused programmes. A particularfocus is cyber and electronic warfare ..
The abandonment of Australia in 1942 – Bob Worth
In the first few months of Australia’s war with Japan, beginningin December 1941, Australia’s prime minister, John Curtin, clearlysaw the war as a ‘battle for Australia’. Newly available evidence suggests that Australia was abandoned by its allies; and that Curtin was on the verge of mental and physical collapse.

Contributed History Note

Betano Bay today – John Ellis
Betano Bay, East Timor, was the scene of tragedy for HMAS Voyager in September 1942. Today, the remains of boilers andengines can be seen at low water.

Book Reviews

Lost: the stories of all ships lost by the Royal Australian Navy by Allen Lyne – reviewed by Ian Pfennigwerth
Lost chronicles each of the 45 ships lost by the Royal Australian Navy, giving the background history of each ship and the strategic situation at the time, describing the action in which the ship was lost and summarising what happened to survivors.
The forgotten cruiser: HMAS Melbourne 1913-1928 by Andrew Kilsby and Greg Swinden – reviewed by Ian Pfennigwerth
Is there anything more irritating than a sibling who always steals the limelight and, despite how hard one tries, retains it? That is the subject of this interesting and timely ‘warts and all’ account of the career of Australia's first cruiser, HMASMelbourne.
Invisible armies: an epic history of guerrilla warfarefrom ancient times to the present by Max Boot – reviewed by Marcus Field
Max Boot, a very capable historian, traces guerrilla warfare and terrorism from antiquity to the present, narrating nearly thirty centuries of unconventional military conflicts and from which he derives twelve generic observations about guerrillas and guerrilla warfare.
Dirty wars: the world is a battlefield by Jeremy Scahill – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Dirty Warsdescribes how the United States Government has prosecuted it’s ‘war on terrorism’ since 9/11 with an increasinguse of targeted killings using drone and missile strikes, as well as clandestine raids by military special forces. It is a deeply disturbing book.
The formation and operation of the US Army Small Ships in World War II by Ernest A. Flint – reviewed by David Leece
This A4 booklet is a supplement to two previous histories. It is a compilation of relevant material not a vailable when the earlier histories were published; and includes copies of a miscellany of relevant documents which have not been published previously.

Cover

Three Australian Collins-class submarines in Cockburn Sound, Western Australia, on 22 March 2013 – in 2013, the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) operated three submarines at sea as explained in Defence News. In 2014, the RAN will commemorate a century of it operating submarines and the loss of submarine AE1. [Photo: Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 64, Number 4, December 2013

Full size pdf of the Summer 2013 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Defence News

Royal Australian Navy
United States Marine Corps F35B Joint Strike Fighter

Opinion

Editorial: Climate, weather and national security – David Leece
Letter: Indian troops at Gallipoli and Australia’s strategic direction – Arun Kumar Singh
Letter: The role of the Army in a maritime strategy – Ian Knox

Strategic Report Synopsis

Enter the Cyber Dragon: understanding Chinese intelligence agencies' cyber capabilities by Dr Tobias Feakin – prepared by Ian Ingleby
This synopsis of Australian Strategic Policy Institute SpecialmReport No. 50 (June 2013) was prepared by Mr Ingleby after Dr Feakin presented his findings to the Institute on 25 June 2013.

Institute Proceedings

The Australian Defence Force today and tomorrow – David Hurley
With a 15-year period during which the operational tempo was high and the Australian Defence Force (ADF) performed excellently now drawing to a close, the ADF has entered a period of significant change. It is re-setting for the future with a greater focus on the Indo-Pacific region, enhancing its international engagements and diplomacy, introducing new capabilities on an unprecedented scale, and addressing significant personnel challenges.
The operational role of the Heron remotely-piloted aircraft in the Royal Australian Air Force – John Jenkins
Remotely-piloted aircraft (RPAs), also referred to as un - manned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and more unacceptably in the media realm as ‘drones’, have revolutionised aerial warfare in the 21st century. The Heron RPA system is used by the Royal Australian Air Force in Afghanistan for intelligence gathering, reconnaissance, and surveillance. It does not carry weapons.

Contributed History Paper

Surgeon John White: Australia's first surgeon-general – Bruce Short
Surgeon John White RN, the principal surgeon in the ‘First Fleet’ which sailed from England to establish the Colony of New South Wales in 1788, became the new colony’s first surgeon general. He had to deal with scurvy among the settlers and an unknown epidemic among the local Aborigines, which Short proposes be called ‘severe acquired pustular disease’.

Obituary

Brigadier William Harold 'Mac' Grant, OAM, RFD – John M. Hutcheson
Mac Grant, soldier and spy, was a former National President of the Royal United Services Institute of Australia and President of the Royal United Services Institute of Victoria.

Book Reviews

Thorneycroft's 'unbuttoned': the story of Thorneycroft's mounted infantry in the Boer War 1899–1902 by Robin W. F. Droogleever – reviewed by Rowan Tracey
A mounted infantry unit raised in November 1899 by Major Alexander Thorneycroft, Royal Scots Fusiliers, became one of the finest irregular mounted units raised during the Boer War.
Gallipoli to Tripoli: history of the 10th Light Horse Regiment AIF, 1914 – 1919 by Neville Browning and Ian Gill – reviewed by Michael Hough
The 10th Light Horse Regiment, Australian Imperial Force, a Western Australian mounted infantry unit, epitomised the dash and insouciance of the mounted Australian soldier in World War I.
The fighting fourth: a history of Sydney's 4th Battalion 1914 – 1919 by Ronald J. Austin – reviewed by John Hitchen
The Fighting Fourth traces the history of the 4th Battalion, Australian Imperial Force, a New South Wales infantry unit, from its formation in August 1914, through to Gallipoli in 1915 and then on to the Western Front from April 1916 to September 1918.
Steel Cat: the story of HMAS Brisbane, Vietnam and Gulf War veteran by Ken Doolan – reviewed by Ian Pfennigwerth
HMAS Brisbane was the last of three guided-missile destroyers (DDG) commissioned into the RAN in the 1960s. She was the only Australian destroyer to have been deployed on active service to two major conflicts during the second half of the 20th century.
War from the ground up: twenty-first-century combat as politics by Emile Simpson – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Written by a British infantry officer who completed three tours in Afghanistan, War From The Ground Up wrestles with the nature of modern wars and offers a new and distinctive perspective on contemporary armed conflict.

Cover

General David Hurley, AC, DSC, Chief of the Australian Defence Force, who delivered the occasional address at the Institute’s 125th Anniversary Dinner at Parliament House, Sydney, on Friday, 16 August 2013. His address is published above. [Photo: Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 64, Number 3, September 2013

Full size pdf of the Winter 2013 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Defence News

Royal Australian Air Force

Opinion

Editorial: Australia's Strategic Direction - David Leece
'Next Generation' veterans should rally around the old flagpoles - Markus Fielding
Our Afghan war dead have not died in vain – Tom Lewis
Letter - Need for an Australian national strategy - Markus Fielding

Institute Proceedings

The role of the Army in a maritime strategy – David Morrison
Australia’s defence is based on a mar itime strategy which involves finding security in Asia, not from Asia, by controlling the northern sea-land-air-bridge to Australia. The strategy is implemented by the Australian Defence Force to which Army contributes ready, relevant, robust land forces for expeditionary operations.
The future of the Amphibious Task Force – Ray Leggatt
The Australian Defence Force is developing an amphibious task force with United States and United Kingdom assistance. Based on two new 27,000 tonne amphibious assault ships, this will be a major leap in Australia’s amphibious capability and will be a key enabler of Australia’s maritime strategy.
The Gallipoli campaign: a Turkish perspective – Gülseren Çelik
Seeking to knock Turkey out of World War I in 1915, Allied forces, including Australians, invaded the Gallipoli peninsula. The Allied forces were repelled by the Ottoman defenders led by Mustafa Kemal. Amid heroism, chivalry and great loss of life on both sides, a mutual respect developed which led in time to genuine friendship between the Australian and Turkish nations.

Contributed History Note

Australians' crucial part in turning the tide in North Africa in 1942 – Bryn Evans
In the North African campaigns of World War II, Australians at sea, on the ground and in the air were important contributors in turning the tide against the Axis powers. Mr Evans highlights a few lesser-known examples.

Book Reviews

Architect of victory: Douglas Haig by Walter Reid – reviewed by David Leece
In this well-researched and balanced biography, Reid rebuts Haig’s popular image as an unimaginative butcher. Rather, Reid asserts that he was the master mind of a victory over a continental opponent on a scale that has never been matched before or since.
They sang like kangaroos: Australia's tinpot navy in the Great War by Dr Anthony Delano – reviewed by Ken Broadhead
Dr Delano outlines the contribution of the fledging Royal Australian Navy to the Great War when its ships, men and deployments were under control of the Royal Navy. It could almost be published as a supplement to the official history.

Cover

The grave in Waverley Cemetery, Sydney, of Major General John Soame Richardson, CB, who founded the United Service Institution of New South Wales on 20 August 1888. Inset on the cross is a photo of General Richardson c. 1885. To mark its 125th anniversary, the Institute conducted a wreath-laying ceremony at the grave on 20 August 2013. [Grave photo: David Leece]

  United Service, Volume 64, Number 2, June 2013

Full size pdf of the Winter 2013 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Institute News

A message from the National President – Chris Richie

Defence News

Australia’s amphibious ships – Editor

Opinion

Letters

Dialogue Proceedings

2nd International Defence and Security Dialogue: Introduction – David Leece
The Dialogue on 26 February 2013 considered "Australia’s immediate neighbourhood: the strategic outlook and its defence and security implications".
2013 Blamey Oration: The strategic outlook for Melanesia – Richard Herr
Professor Herr’s review of the strategic outlook for Melanesia in the Asia-Pacific century perpetuates the memory of Field Marshal Sir Thomas Blamey.
The strategic outlook: a Timor-Leste perspective – Damien Kingsbury
Professor Kingsbury’s review of the strategic outlook for Timor-Leste and the region reflects the Timor-Leste government’s views.
The strategic outlook for Papua New Guinea – Ronald May
Dr May reviews the external and internal security threats facing Papua New Guinea.
The strategic outlook: a Fijian perspective – Sitiveni Rabuka
Major-General Rabuka provides his own perspective on the strategic outlook for the neighbourhood.
The strategic outlook: a New Zealand perspective – John McKinnon
John McKinnon, recently New Zealand’s secretary of defence, provides a personal perspective on the strategic outlook for the Asia-Pacific region and our neighbourhood.
Australia – the indispensable power in a congested sea: foreign policy implications of Australia's strategic outlook – Jenny Hayward-Jones
Ms Hayward-Jones examines Australia’s enduring position as the dominant and indispensable power in Melanesia, and the foreign policy choices and obligations this entails.
The strategic outlook: implications for defence policy, force structure and force posture – Michael Shoebridge
Mr Shoebridge provides insight into the strategic thinking that is likely to underpin Australia’s 2013 defence white paper.
Security, disaster relief and humanitarian assistance policy implications of Australia's strategic outlook – Alan Ryan
Dr Ryan describes the multi-agency challenges and the teamwork required to deliver effective whole-of-government conflict response, disaster relief and humanitarian assistance.

Commemorative Essay

The Royal Australian Naval College centenary – Peter Jones
A century on, Vice-Admiral Jones reflects on the founding of the Royal Australian Naval College, its unique features and the achievements of its Pioneer Class.

Book Reviews

Boldly and faithfully – the journal: the official history of the 19th Australian Infantry Battalion, Australian Imperial Force by Lieutenant Colonel Peter McGuinness, MBE, RFD, ED (Ret’d) – reviewed by David Leece
The 19th Battalion, one of 20 infantry battalions from New South Wales, served on Gallipoli in 1915 and in France and Flanders in 1916–1918.
Beaten down by blood: the Battle of Mont St Quentin-Péronne 1918 by Michele Bomford – reviewed by John Hitchen
The capture of Mont St Quentin and the fortress town of Péronne between 31 August and 5 September 1918 was a great feat of Australian arms.
War to War: Australia's Navy 1919–1939 by Bob Nicholls – reviewed by Ian Pfennigwerth
This is a well-researched and remarkable story of the Australian navy and its vicissitudes from the return of the Fleet from overseas in 1919-20 to the outbreak of World War II.
A soldier's soldier: a biography of Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Daly by Jeffrey Grey – reviewed by David Leece
A Soldier's Soldier is a sympathetic, yet mostly balanced, biography of a renowned Australian professional soldier.

Cover

Capturing the spirit of the Institute’s 2nd International Defence and Security Dialogue, Australian Army Reserve Troopers Ross Spencer and Adrian Johan accompany Inspector Brian Palusi from the Correctional Services of the Solomon Islands on a routine perimeter patrol of the Rove Central Correctional Centre in Honiara. [Photo: ABIS Jo Dilorenzo, Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 64, Number 1, March 2013

Full size pdf of the Autumn 2013 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Defence and Security News

National Security Strategy
Australian Cyber Security Centre
Australian Fleet Update

Opinion

Wanted – a national strategy to guide us all – Ian Crawford
Australia's nuclear-powered submarine option – Tom Lewis

Letters

Declining global influence of the United States – David Glasson
Japanese submarine attacks on Australian merchant shipping in 1942-1943 – Keith Pryor

Policy Submission

A summary of the Institute's submission to the 2013 Defence White Paper – D. J. Roser, D. R. Leece and R. B. Treloar

Institute Proceedings

China in transition – Hamish McDonald
China underwent decadal leadership change in November 2012. Hamish McDonald discusses what the new leadership regime may have in store for China and the Asia-Pacific Region.
Farewell, dear people: Australia's gifted lost generation of World War I – Ross McMullin
Dr McMullin provides a brief biography of ten Australians of exceptional potential who died in World War I. Their deaths represented a profound loss to the nation as well as to their families.

Contributed Historical Note

The Peninsular War diary of Ensign John V. Carter – Christopher Dawson
Ensign Carter’s diary records events between November 1811 and March 1812. It gives a picture of the life of a junior regimental officer during the Peninsula War.

Book Reviews

Ray Parkin's odyssey by Pattie Wright – reviewed by John Ellis
Ray Parkin was an artist, sailor and author who survived the sinking of HMAS Perth I only to become a prisoner of war. His admirers are certain to seek out this book.
Hell's battlefield: the Australians in New Guinea in World War II by Phillip Bradley – reviewed by John Hitchen
Hell's Battlefield covers the all battles fought by the Australians against the Japanese in New Guinea in World War II in a single volume – the first book ever to do so.
Forgotten fleet: a history of the part played by Australian men and ships in the U.S. Army Small Ships Section in New Guinea, 1942-1945 by Bill Lunney and Frank Finch – reviewed by Arthur Price
Forgotten Fleet is a unit histor y that tells how, in 1942, with Japanese forces perilously close to Australia, little ships served in supplying Australian and American troops in New Guinea.
Uneasy lies the head: a history of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force in Japan by Ar thur W. John – reviewed by Michael Hough
This book is the memoir of an Australian Army education officer serving with the British Commonwealth Occupation Force (BCOF) in Japan following World War II.
Exit wounds: one Australian's war on terror by Major General (Retired) John Cantwell with Greg Bearup – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
Exit Wounds is a personal and insightful account of Cantwell's war time experiences. It is also a compassionate and deeply human account of life on a modern battlefield.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover Australian naval frigate, HMAS Warramunga, exercising with the Chinese naval ship, Louyang, in the South China Sea on 23 September 2010. A paper on China in transition by Hamish McDonald commences on page 12. [Photo: ABIS Jo Dilorenzo, Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 63, Number 4, December 2012

Full size pdf of the Summer 2012 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Defence News

Royal Australian Air Force Update – David Worrall
New United States Army Rifle XM25

Opinion

The ANZUS Alliance: Australia’s role – David Leece

Institute Proceedings

The declining global influence of the United States – Tom Switzer
The declining influence of the United States abroad, brought about both by the r ise of China and other emerging powers and by weaknesses at home, is haunting United States politics. It has significant implications for Australia, which needs to become more nuanced in its foreign policy.
Assessing the War in Iraq – Albert Palazzo
Dur ing the recent Iraq War, Australia, a junior coalition partner, set and attained its own policy goals which were different from (albeit compatible with) those of the United States, the coalition leader. Dr Palazzo focuses on how this outcome was achieved and examines five factors which were crucial to its attainment. It has lessons for other middle powers.

Contributed Essays

Merchant mariners in the Battle for Australia – Keith Pryor
Darwin’s bombing on 19 Februar y 1942 heralded dangerous times for Australia’s merchant mariners, who were to go on to ‘work and fight as never before’ and play a vital role in the Battle for Australia.
Japanese submarine attacks on the Australian coast, 1942–1943 – Brian Swan
Japanese submarines operating on the east coast of Australia in 1942-1943 attacked Sydney and Newcastle and sank 18 merchant ships – 605 allied merchant seamen lost their lives. Another 15 ships were attacked but failed to sink.
Commemorating the 60th anniversary of the Korean War, 1950–1953 – Ian Crawford
Admiral Crawford argues that, as activities commemorating the Korean War’s 60th anniversar y draw to a close, the time has come to lay to rest the identification of that war as the ‘forgotten war’.

Book Reviews

ANZACs on the Western Front: the Australian War Memorial battlefield guide by Peter Pedersen with Chris Roberts – reviewed by John Hitchen
Any Australian or New Zealander going to, or thinking about visiting, the Western Front should read this book, which is a guide to the battlefields, not the cemeteries.
The rise and fall of the Singapore Naval Base, 1919–1942 by W. David McIntyre – reviewed by Ian Pfennigwerth
The capitulation Singapore in February 1942 has spawned many books. This one, published in 1979, examines the long chain of causation, drawing on records which became available from 1972 onwards.
The forgotten few: 77 RAAF Squadron in Korea by Doug Hurst – reviewed by Bob Treloar
A book of this quality about the air war over Korea is very much overdue. The Forgotten Few is a must read, particularly for those with a penchant for military aviation and the Korean War.
Fighting to the Finish: the Australian Army and the Vietnam War, 1968-1975 by Ashley Ekins with Ian McNeill – reviewed by John M. Hutcheson
This book is the final volume of 'The Official History of Australia's Involvement in Southeast Asian Conflicts 1948-75'. Its main focus is the peak period in Vietnam from 1968 to 1971.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover A C-130H Hercules from the RAAF’s No. 37 Squadron, Richmond, releases its flares over central Alaska in June during a combined exercise with United States forces, Exercise Red Flag 2012, an exercise designed to replicate a high-end combat environment. The declining global influence of the United States is examined by Tom Switzer CLICK HERE. [Photo: Corporal David Gibbs, Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 63, Number 3, September 2012

Full size pdf of the Spring 2012 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Defence News

Australian Defence Force Posture Review – Doug Roser
Royal Australian Navy Update – Grant McDuling

Opinion

Editorial Army’s capability – David Leece
Letter Royal United Services Institute of Victoria – Warren Kemp
Sustaining Australia''s naval capability – Doug Roser

Institute Proceedings

Australia's future submarines programme – Rowan Moffitt
The Australian Navy’s future submarines programme is intended to build at least 12 submarines in Australia over the next 40 years, with the first boat delivered around 2030.
Maritime construction and sustainment: an industry perspective – Chris Lloyd
Mr Lloyd assesses the capability and capacity of Australian industry to deliver Australia’s naval shipbuilding programme and to maintain Navy’s ships in service.
The New Guinea goldfields between the wars – Michael Waterhouse
In the 1930s, the New Guinea goldfields were the second-largest gold-mining province in Australasia and the main source of the territory’s revenue. This was made possible by world-leading air transport and was ended by Japan’s invasion in 1942. Australia’s indifferent administration of the territory under a League of Nations mandate was a lost opportunity.

Contributed Essay

Bonds linking the Korean and Australian defence communities – Ian Crawford
Rear Admiral Crawford, a naval veteran of the 1950-53 Korean War, describes the strong bonds that still link the Korean and Australian defence communities 60 years on.

Book Reviews

House adaption: design choices in adapting a family home for accessible living by architect Harry Sprintz – reviewed by John M. Hutcheson
This book is a valuable summary of the adaption of family housing for accessible living for the disabled, including veterans.
When tigers fight: the story of the Sino-Japanese War 1937-1945 by Dick Wilson – reviewed by Michael Hough
World War II featured a long and bitter conflict between two nations which are now major trading partners of Australia – China and Japan. This is a scholarly account of that conflict.
March or die: the story of Wingate’s Chindits by Philip D. Chinnery – reviewed by John Hitchen
The book describes Wingate’s unconventional operations in Burma in 1943 and 1944, commanding 77th Indian Infantry Brigade (Chindit brigade), and 3rd Indian Infantry Division (Special Force).
Afgansty: the Russians in Afghanistan 1979-1989 by Rodric Braithwaite – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
This is an historical narrative, but, given events in Afghanistan today, it also serves to illustrate the maxim that those who do not learn from history are bound to repeat it.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover Midshipman Mitchell Herps, RAN, and Lieutenant Cameron Matheson, RAN, about to inspect the hull of HMAS Newcastle in Queen Char lotte Sound, New Zealand, in May 2012. The sustainment of Australia’s naval capability is featured in this issue. [Photo: ABIS Sarah Williams, Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 63, Number 2, June 2012

Full size pdf of the Winter 2012 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Defence and Security News

Dr Margo McCarthy appointed National Security Advisor
Royal Australian Navy update

Opinion

Naval re-equipment: a challenge for the Royal Australian Navy and Australia – Ian Pfennigwerth

Institute Proceedings

National security policy in Australia: much achieved, more to do – David Connery
Dr Connery examines national security policy-making in Australia, highlighting recent achievements and identifying areas where effectiveness might be improved.
Maintenance of ships in the Royal Australian Navy: the Rizzo reform programme – capability management, accountability and responsibility – Mark Purcell
Major deficiencies in the seaworthiness of Navy’s amphibious ships led to a review of the maintenance system and a reform programme which is explained by Commodore Purcell.
JFK in the Pacific: PT-109 – Owen O’Brien
In World War II, John F. Kennedy commanded a motor torpedo patrol boat in the Solomons. It collided with a Japanese destroyer and sank. Colonel O’Brien describes these events.

Contributed History Note

The battles of the Java Sea: Allied naval defeat, December 1941 – March 1942 – Ian Pfennigwerth
To mark the 70th anniversary of the Java Sea naval battles, Dr Pfennigwerth puts them in perspective and corrects some popular misconceptions.

Biography

Who was … Edward Thomas Henry Hutton? – David Leece
Sir Edward Hutton, third president of The United Service Institution of New South Wales, was the first commander of the Australian Commonwealth Military Forces.

Book Reviews

The Operators: the wild and terrifying inside story of America’s war in Afghanistan by Michael Hastings – reviewed by Marcus Fielding
In 2010, a magazine article led to the resignation of General Stanley McChrystal, commander of Allied forces in Afghanistan. That article has now been expanded into this book.
Roden Cutler, V.C.: the biography by Colleen McCullough – reviewed by Priscilla Leece
Colleen McCullough’s biography of Sir Roden Cutler, a former patron of the United Service Institution of New South Wales, is a fine portrait of one of Australia’s most admired men.
In good hands: the life of Dr Stan Stening, POW by Ian Pfennigwerth – reviewed by Marie Bashir
This is the biography of Surgeon Lieutenant-Commander Stan Stening who, following the sinking of HMAS Perth in 1942, served as a doctor in prisoner-of-war camps in Japan.
Darwin’s submarine I-124: the story of a covert Japanese submarine squadron waging a secret underwater war against northern Australia by Dr Tom Lewis – reviewed by Ken Broadhead
This is the story of a Japanese submarine squadron that waged war against northern Australia from 1942 to 1944, and of the Australian efforts that sank the title vessel.
Eleven bloody days: the battle for Milne Bay by Brian Boettcher – reviewed by Chris Ballantine
While much has been written about the Kokoda campaign, the equally critical concurrent battle at Milne Bay, New Guinea, in August- September 1942, has received less attention.
Training the Bodes: Australian Army advisers training Cambodian infantry battalions – a postscript to the Vietnam War by Terry Smith – reviewed by John Hitchen
This book fills a gap in our knowledge of Australian involvement in the Vietnam War. It tells how Australian advisers trained Cambodian soldiers to fight as light infantry in 1972.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover Indonesian and Australian naval officers on the bridge of an Indonesian patrol boat during a joint Indonesian-Australian maritime security patrol targeting illegal fishing in the Timor Sea in April 2012. Dr David Conner y discusses Australia’s national security policy. [Photo: Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 63, Number 1, March 2012

Full size pdf of the Autumn 2012 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Defence and Security News

Australian Air Force Cadets – 70 years of service – Peter Growder
Seafarers need protection from Somali pirates – Save Our Seafarers

Opinion

Editorials - Melanesia and The Australian Army’s Plan Beersheba – David Leece
Letters
Soldiers and state building – Denis Dragovic, Dean Hagerman and Robert Swope
The military-centric model of building nation-states, prominent over the past decade in Iraq and Afghanistan, has failed to meet the objective that began with winning the war, but now lies in nation building. It is time to question the role the military should play in state building.

Institute Proceedings

The future of Papua New Guinea- Australia relations – Jenny Hayward-Jones
Ms Hayward-Jones assesses Australia’s relationship with Papua New Guinea, examining past failures in the relationship and the impact of recent events and global dynamics on it. She makes suggestions as to where the relationship might now head, capitalising on the new opportunities that now present.
Population statistics: navigating the numbers that affect our future – Rod Tiffen, with David Leece
A nation-state’s population size is a key strategic driver. David Leece discusses statistics presented by Professor Tiffen on population size and trends for the world and Australia, drawing out economic, social and strategic implications. Population is an issue that Australia can no longer ignore.

Contributed Essay

Crises and strategic perimeters – Coral Bell
Dr Bell examines the concept of strategic perimeters (as opposed to spheres of influence), how it has changed over time since the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, how it can precipitate international crises and how it is playing out in the contemporary, multi-polar world.

Contributed History Note

The sinking of the SS Nellore by the Japanese in 1944 – Patrick Bollen
Sixty-seven years ago, Joe Bollen was on SS Nellore when she was attacked by Japanese submarines. His son, Patrick Bollen, finally urges his father to talk about the resulting horror.

Book Reviews

Washington: a life by Ron Chernow – reviewed by Priscilla Leece
This expertly narrated biography provides a deftly nuanced portrait of America’s first general and then first president.
The American Civil War: a military history by John Keegan – reviewed by Priscilla Leece
If you have never read a military history of the Civil War, Sir John Keegan’s new history is the one to read.
Spearhead general: the epic story of General Sir Frank Messervy and his men in Eritrea, North Africa and Burma by Henry Maule – reviewed by Bruce Short
This is a story about a British general who did more fighting than any other general in any army anywhere in the Second World War.
Business in great waters: the U-boat wars, 1916-1945 by John Terraine – reviewed by Rob Walls
Twice within 25 years Britain was threatened with starvation by the menace of the U-boat. This book identifies key ingredients of submarine and anti-submarine warfare in World Wars I and II.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover The main entrance of the national parliament building in Por t Moresby, Papua New Guinea [Photo: Steve Shattuck, 29 October 2004; Wikimedia Commons]. Ms Jenny Hayward-Jones discusses the future of Papua New Guinea–Australia in her paper. relations

  United Service, Volume 62, Number 4, December 2011

Full size pdf of the Summer 2011 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Institute Proceedings

The Army Reserve through the prism of the current commander of the 2nd Division – Craig Williams
Major General Williams explains the current role and tasks of Australia’s Army Reserve, especially its 2nd Division, and describes how that will change as Army develops a more effective and efficient total force tailored for Australia’s needs over the next 20 years.
A Vietnam minefield experience – Tony White
Dr White describes treating casualties in a minefield during his deployment to South Vietnam in 1966-67 as regimental medical officer of the 5th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment.
Submarine development in the 20th century – Chris Wood
Rear Admiral Wood describes the evolution of, and the contribution made by, British and Australian submarines during the 20th century.

Contributed Essay

Afghanistan and the AfPak theatre of operations – Bruce Short
Air Vice-Marshal Short traces the recent history of warfare in Afghanistan from 1839 to the present day, putting the current conflict there into its historic perspective.

Book Reviews

Bad characters: sex, crime, mutiny and murder in the Australian Imperial Force by Peter Stanley – reviewed by Michael Hough
Bad Characters deals with the challenges of maintaining discipline in the Australian Imperial Force throughout World War I; and balances the legend of the larrikin Digger hero against the story of those Australian soldiers in the Great War who were not heroes.
Guadalcanal: World War II’s fiercest naval campaign by Adrian Stewart – reviewed by Priscilla Leece
From August 1942 to February 1943, Allied and Japanese naval forces fought six major battles and many smaller actions near the Solomons island of Guadalcanal, as both sides sought the use of its airbase, Henderson Field, to refuel planes for action in the Pacific.
Stories from Sandakan: 2/18th Bn by Kevin Smith – reviewed by Michael Hough
This is an account of how only 10 men out of the 174 all ranks of the 2/18th Battalion, Australian Imperial Force, who were sent by the Japanese as prisoners of war to Sandakan, Borneo, in 1942-43, survived to return to Australia in 1945.
Starlight: an Australian Army doctor in Vietnam by Dr Tony White, AM, RFD – reviewed by Bruce Short
This excellent memoir by the regimental medical officer of the 5th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, during its deployment in South Vietnam in 1966-67, should be prescribed reading for today’s Service health providers.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover Private Tristan Moylan, D Company, 41st Battalion, Royal New South Wales Regiment, training for operations near Lismore, New South Wales, on 17 September 2011. The 41st Battalion is an Army Reserve light infantry battalion which presently has troops deployed to East Timor for eight months as part of the 8th Brigade (2nd Division) company group serving with the International Stabilisation Force. The current role of the Army Reserve and the preparation of Reservists for operations are described in a paper by Major General Craig Williams. [Photo: John Waddell, Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 62, Number 3, September 2011

Full size pdf of the Spring 2011 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Defence News

Royal Australian Navy in review: January to July 2011 – Headquarters, Australian Fleet

Opinion

Editorial: Australia’s strategic dilemma – balancing China and the United States – David Leece

Institute Proceedings

Inaugural International Defence and Security Dialogue – The Global Security Outlook

Introduction: the global securit outlook and the Blamey Oration – David Leece

Part A: A South-Asian Perspective
The 2011 Blamey Oration: The global strategic outlook: a South-Asian perspective – Arun Kumar Singh
Vice-Admiral Singh observes that China and India are becoming global economic powers, whereas the European powers are in decline. China is building its conventional military and space capacity, and is seeking to break free of its geographic and maritime constraints. Pakistan is the epicentre of global terrorism and is struggling to avoid implosion. Towards mid-century, the United States will remain in the top three economies, and may still have the only navy capable of sustained operations in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, while both India and China are likely to have two-ocean navies capable of operations in the Indo-Pacific Region. War or peace in the Indo-Pacific Region will depend in large part on how these three powers interact.

Part B: Some Australian Perspectives
Perspective 1 - Hamish McDonald
Perspective 2 - Andrew Shearer
Perspective 3 - Rod Lyon
Perspective 4 - Ross Babbage
Concluding remarks – Peter Leahy

Book Reviews

Beneath Hill 60: the Australian miners’ secret warfare beneath the trenches of the Western Front by Will Davies – reviewed by David Leece
Beneath Hill 60 is much more than simply the story behind the recent film of the same name. It outlines the history of tunnelling operations in warfare before detailing the use of tunnelling and mining in World War I.
Bardia: myth, reality and the heirs of Anzac by Craig Stockings – reviewed by John Hitchen
In January 1941, 6th Australian Division captured Bardia. Stockings contends controversially that the traditional Bardia story is an example of battlefield ‘truth’ being obscured by Anzac mythology; and examines why the Australians were so successful beyond the ‘innate’ qualities of the Australian infantryman.
The memoirs of Lord Ismay by General The Lord Ismay – reviewed by Bruce Short
This memoir is a masterly narrative by a participant at the very centre of British decision-making during the entire Second World War and, inter alia, provides an excellent account of many aspects of Churchill’s non-public persona.
All day long the noise of battle by Gerard Windsor – reviewed by Peter Stokes
All day long recounts the experiences of C Company, 7th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, on Operation Coburg during the 1968 Tet Offensive in Vietnam. Despite being overshadowed by more spectacular battles, it needed to be written and it has been written well.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover Field Marshal Sir Thomas Albert Blamey, GBE, KCB, CMG, DSO, ED – painting (oil on canvas) by William Dargie, 1969 [Australian War Memorial Negative Number ART27646]. The 2011 Blamey Oration, delivered by Vice-Admiral A. K. Singh, PVSM, AVSM, NM, Indian Navy (Ret’d), at the Institute’s Inaugural International Defence and Security Dialogue on 26 May 2011.

  United Service, Volume 62, Number 2, June 2011

Click Here for full size pdf of the Winter 2011 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Opinion

Editorial: Food insecurity – David Leece
Asymmetric war – Coral Bell
Letters –
Corporal Ben Roberts-Smith, VC, MG
Major General P.J.S. Sandhu
Major K.S. Myers

Institute Proceedings

The structure of global power and Australia's role – Geoffrey Garrett
Professor Garrett reviews the current structure of global power and concludes that the demise of the United States has been exaggerated; and the United States and China are joined at the economic hip. Australia is a key partner in the United States–China relationship, as much economically as geopolitically.
The Australian landings on Gallipoli: myth versus reality – Hugh Dolan
Squadron Leader Dolan examines several myths about the landings at ANZAC Cove on 25 April 1915 which together make up the Gallipoli legend. He demonstrates, with research into primary sources, that the reality was quite different. Far from being a disaster, the ANZAC landings constituted a successful, daring and unorthodox amphibious assault which achieved its strategic objective.

Contributed Essay

Retreat to Imita: the final stage of the Australian withdrawal on the Kokoda Trail – Rowan Tracey
Rowan Tracey re-examines the historic record of the Kokoda campaign of 1942. He concludes controversially that, had the Australian reinforcements gone straight to Ioribaiwa, the retreat to Imita Ridge would not have been necessary; and that the subsequent follow-up of the Japanese withdrawal was anything but vigorous.

Obituary

Jack Trevor Murn – Keith Pryor
Jack Murn was the first merchant mariner to become a member of the Institute.

Book Reviews

Grant takes command: the vital years of the American Civil War by Bruce Catton – reviewed by Priscilla Leece
Pulitzer Prize winning historian Bruce Catton, chronicles the final two years of the American Civil War, with a focus on Ulysses S. Grant, the North’s most successful general.
36 days: the untold story behind the Gallipoli landings by Hugh Dolan – reviewed by Ian Boys
At Gallipoli in 1915, the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force had only 36 days in which to plan and execute the largest seaborne assault ever conducted and do so at multiple points along a well-defended shoreline without the element of surprise. Dolan describes how they did it.
Red One: a bomb disposal expert on the front line by Captain Kevin Ivison, GM – reviewed by Eric Ralphs
Red One is the gripping autobiography of a young British bomb disposal officer, focusing primarily on his terrifying experiences in Iraq in 2005-06 facing daily rocket attacks and terrorist bombs.
The causes of war by Geoffrey Blainey – reviewed by Bruce Short
Blainey’s up-dated treatise is a survey of all the international wars fought since 1700 up to and including the nuclear era. It is a seminal discourse on the causes of war and peace.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover The 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, marked the 60th anniversary of the Battle of Kapyong with a ceremonial parade at Holsworthy Barracks on 24 April 2011. Here, the Colours are marched on parade. In this Korean War battle on 24 April 1951, the Australian battalion and a Canadian unit halted an attacking Chinese infantry division and prevented the capital of South Korea from falling into enemy hands. In doing so, 32 Australians were killed and 53 were wounded. [Photo: Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 62, Number 1, March 2011

Click Here for full size pdf of the Autumn 2011 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Defence News

The Victoria Cross awarded to Corporal Ben Roberts-Smith – Department of Defence

Opinion

Editorials: The Middle East in turmoil; Australia’s defence industry; the Australian flag – David Leece
Letter – A flag for all Australians – Laurie Hindmarsh

Institute Proceedings

The 2010 Sir Herman Black Lecture: Review of major international strategic policy developments of 2010 – Andrew Shearer
Andrew Shearer reviews the major international strategic policy developments of 2010 and comments on what they might mean for Australia and for our national security. These trends will continue in 2011, subject to two critical variables: the rate at which the economies of the West recover; and the sustainability of China’s growth.
Australia’s national security – Michael Shoebridge
Michael Shoebridge outlines Australia’s new national security policy and modus operandi. He enumerates several recent achievements, and then describes the challenges that must now be addressed and their implications for the defence and national security agencies.
Australia’s defence industry: one last chance – Paul Johnson
Australia’s once capable defence industry has been allowed to decline and may soon become essentially a sustainment industry. A new submarine construction programme could prove to be the circuit breaker that we urgently need.

Contributed Essay

Genocide in the 20th century – Bruce Short
Bruce Short explains the modern concept of genocide and illustrates it by drawing examples from the 20th century. He concludes that genocide remains both the gravest and the greatest of the crimes against humanity.

Book Reviews

The Blue Nile by Alan Moorehead – reviewed by David Leece
This is a well-written history of the Blue Nile from 1762 to 1868, including Bruce’s initial survey of the river (1762- 73), the French invasion of Egypt (1798), the Turkish conquest of the Sudan (1821) and the British expedition to Ethiopia (1868).
Four years to remember with RAF Bomber Command: memories of an Australian pilot during WWII by Flight Lieutenant George M. Burcher – reviewed by Tony Mumford
This is the autobiography of a Royal Australian Air Force pilot who flew with the Royal Air Force’s No. 10 Squadron, Bomber Command, on operations over Europe during World War II.
Aussie soldiers reflect on the Rwandan genocide by Kevin O’Halloran – reviewed by Bruce Short
The 1994 Rwandan Genocide cost up to 1 million lives in a little over 100 days. A small team of ADF medical and security personnel did their best to assist the victims.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover Corporal Benjamin Roberts-Smith, VC, MG, Special Air Service Regiment, the 98th Australian to have been awarded the Victoria Cross. [Photo: Department of Defence].

  United Service, Volume 61, Number 4, December 2010

Click Here for full size pdf of Summer 2010 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Opinion and letters

The global strategic outlook - David Leece
Women serving as infantry in combat - Bill Phillips
Origin of the Australian Flag - Australian National Flag Association
(Letters)
Conflict in command during the Kokoda campaign - Gordon Maitland; David McLachlan
A flag for all Australians - John Howells; Ken Myers
The Fovant Badges - Geoffrey Cotte

Institute Proceedings

Forces Command – David Morrison
Army’s new Forces Command combines the former Land and Training Commands and comprises some 85 per cent of the Australian Army. Here, General Morrison explains why it was formed and where it is heading.
Gliding off to war: the use of gliders as weapons in World War II – James Oglethorpe
This account of glider warfare during World War II details the operational use of gliders and explains why they quickly disappeared from military inventories after the war.

Contributed Essay

Keeping the peace – Egypt 1919 – Michael Tyquin
This is a little known account of early Australian peacekeeping efforts by the ANZAC Mounted Division during the Egyptian Rebellion of 1919.

Book Reviews

The ANZACS: Gallipoli to the Western Front by Peter Pedersen – reviewed by David Leece
This is an excellent, one-volume account of the contribution of the Australian Imperial Force, including the Australian Flying Corps, to the Great War of 1914-18.
Rommel’s desert war: waging World War II in North Africa, 1941–1943 by Martin Kitchen – reviewed by Michael Hough
This is a meticulous, research-based insight into the Afrika Korps campaign and the reasons Rommel has remained the most revered Axis-power military leader of World War II.
Operation Victory by Major-General Sir Francis de Guingand – reviewed by Bruce Short
From our library, this is the personal memoir of the chief-of-staff of Eighth Army (1942–43) and 21st Army Group (1944–45) in World War II.
Cruiser: the life and loss of HMAS Perth and her crew by Mike Carlton – reviewed by David Leach
Cruiser is an heroic work which tracks the two-and-a-half years’ service of the light cruiser, HMAS Perth, from July l939 until her sinking in the Sunda Strait on 1 March l942.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover An M1 Abrahms Main Battle Tank and a Tiger Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter at Lavarack Barracks, Townsville, on 5 October 2010 during the build-up to Exercise Hamel, the first major field exercise conducted by the Army’s new Forces Command. Exercise Hamel was held in the Townsville and Tully Training Areas from 10 October to 11 November 2010 and involved more than 6000 troops from Australia, New Zealand and the United States. Commander Forces Command, Major General David Morrison, describes Forces Command and its functions. [Photo: Department of Defence].

  United Service, Volume 61, Number 3, September 2010

Click Here for full size pdf of Spring 2010 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Opinion

Australia’s commitment to Afghanistan – David Leece
Letters

Institute Proceedings

Australia’s air combat capability 2010 – 2020 – Mel Hupfeld
Australia’s small, but potent, air combat capability is being upgraded to maintain its deterrence and regional competitiveness over the next decade and beyond.
John and Craig Laffin – Philip Carey
The late John Laffin, a military historian, acquired a vast library including many books of extraordinary heritage value. His son, Craig, has donated some 4000 of them to the Institute.
Forgotten ANZACs: the campaign in Greece, 1941 – Peter Ewer
Ewer outlines the background to the ill-fated Greek campaign, describes some of the Corps’ major battles and details its eventual fate once withdrawal from Greece became inevitable. Use the button to your lrft to view a video of the presentation.
Japanese submarine attack on Sydney Harbour, 31 May 1942 – Bob Treloar
Three Japanese midget submarines attacked naval shipping in Sydney Harbour on the night of 31 May 1942. Treloar outlines the background to the attack, the operation and its aftermath.

History Note

Afghanistan: a brief history of recent land invasions – Bruce Short
The current conflict in Afghanistan needs to be understood against a background of five attempts since 1839 by foreign powers to impose their will on Afghanistan.

Biography

Who was …… Charles Frederick Cox? – David Leece
Major-General C. F. Cox, CB, CMG, DSO, VD, a citizen cavalryman and Boer War hero, commanded the Australian 1st Light Horse Brigade in Sinai and Palestine in World War I.

Obituary

Rear Admiral N. S. Coates, AM, RAN – David Leece
Rear Admiral Nigel Coates, a former vice-patron of the Institute (2007 – 2009), has died after a short illness.

Book Reviews

Light Horse: a history of Australia’s mounted arm by Jean Bou – reviewed by Roland Millbank
This excellent book examines the Light Horse from its colonial origins to its demise in 1944.
The name’s still Charlie: a biography of Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Green, DSO by Olwyn Green – reviewed by David Leece
Green, a citizen soldier pre- and post-World War II, commanded 2/11th Australian Infantry Battalion in New Guinea (1945) and 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, in Korea (1950).
Red coat dreaming: how colonial Australia embraced the British Army by Craig Wilcox – reviewed by Roland Millbank
Wilcox blends military, personal and social history to produce a most interesting and readable account of the period in the 19th century when the British Army was also Australia’s army.
The Sydney Sailors’ Home 1859 – 2009: 150 years of caring for seafarers by Jan Bowen – reviewed by David Leece
This beautifully written and presented book traces the history of the Sydney Sailors’ Home which, from 1865 – 1979, provided accommodation for merchant seafarers in Sydney.
Those damned rebels: Britain’s American empire in revolt by Michael Pearson and The Revolutionary War and the military policy of the United States by Francis Vinton Greene – both reviewed by Priscilla Leece
These books, one written from the British, the other from the American, perspective, challenged my previous understandings of the American War of Independence (1775-81).
Diggers and Greeks: the Australian campaigns in Greece and Crete by Maria Hill – reviewed by John Hitchen
This account of the attempted defence of Greece and Crete in April-May 1941 uniquely examines relationships that Australian soldiers formed with the Greek civilian population.
Danger close: commanding 3 Para in Afghanistan by Colonel Stuart Tootall DSO OBE – reviewed by Terry Smith
Danger close is a first-hand account by the commanding officer of 3rd Battalion, The Parachute Regiment, of the British entry into Helmand province, Afghanistan, in 2006.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover As Air Commodore Mel Hupfeld explains, Australia is acquiring 24 Block II F/A18-F Super Hornet (Rhino), a truly multi-role aircraft, as a bridging combat aircraft during the transition to the F35 Joint Strike Fighter. Here, the first of the Australian Super Hornets are ferried across the Pacific on 19 March 2010. [Photo: Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 61, Number 2, June 2010

Click Here for full size pdf of Winter 2010 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Opinion

Nuclear proliferation - David Leece
Lessons from the employment of Reservists in the British Expeditionary Force in 1914 – Bruce Short
Letter: A flag for all Australians – Ken Myers

Institute Proceedings

The Royal Australian Navy Fleet: past, present and future – Steve Gilmore
Rear Admiral Steve Gilmore, recently appointed commander of the Australian Fleet, outlines the Fleet’s capabilities, its current operations and his plans for its future development.
Roseville to ‘Prunesville’: the ups and downs of a boy airman in England in World War II – Stuart Doyle
Stuart Doyle was stationed in England when serving with Bomber Command during World War II. Here, he shares some light-hearted and humorous recollections of his English sojourn.
The recovery of bodies from the Battle of Fromelles – Mike O’Brien
The bodies of 250 Allied soldiers killed during the Battle of Fromelles on 19-20 July 1916, previously buried en masse , have been re-buried individually in a new military cemetery.

Contributed Essay

Conflict in command during the Kokoda campaign of 1942: did General Blamey deserve the blame? – Rowan Tracey
Rowan Tracey re-examines the evidence which led General T. A. Blamey to sack Lieutenant-General S. F. Rowell, Major-General A. S. Allen and Brigadier A. W . Potts in 1942.

Biography

Who was …… Gideon James Grieve? – Donald Ramsay
During the Boe War (1899 – 1902), Lieutenant G. J. Grieve was killed-in-action at the battle of Paardeberg on 18 February 1900 while gallantly commanding a company of The Black Watch.

Book Reviews

The Royal Australian Navy and MacArthur by Ian Pfennigwerth – reviewed by David Leach
This professional work records the contribution of Australia’s navy to the war in the Pacific in 1942–1945 and provides a new perspective on MacArthur’s part in the eventual Allied victory.
The history of the University of New South Wales Regiment 1952 – 2006 by D. J. Deasey and K. J. McKay – reviewed by Rod White
This is a magnificent record of the University of New South Wales Regiment. It will become a major reference on the development of pre-commissioning training in the reserve forces.
The last parallel: a marine’ s war journal by Martin Russ – reviewed by David Leece
United States Marine Corps Corporal Martin Russ, whose 1st Marine Division faced the Chinese Army in Korea in 1953, paints an excellent picture of life and combat on the front line.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover Lieutenant Anita Nemarich, RAN, navigating officer of HMAS Anzac , on the port bridge wing during fleet training in the Eastern Australian Exercise Areas on 5 March 2010. In this issue (above), Rear Admiral Steve Gilmore, AM, CSC , RAN, commander of the Australian Fleet, who is responsible for raising and training fleet personnel and units, outlines the Fleet’s capabilities, its current operations and his plans for its future development. [Photo: Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 61, Number 1, March 2010

Click Here for full size pdf of Autumn 2010 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Institute Proceedings

Review of major inter national strategic policy developments of 2009 – Andrew Shearer
Andrew Shearer reviews 2009’s major international policy developments relevant to Australia and comments on what they might mean for us and our national security. He focuses on: national institutions, policies and political leadership; the nation-state; global power shifts to Asia; power shifts within Asia; and non-traditional threats. He concludes that, in 2009, Australia again showed itself to be the ‘lucky country’, but it cannot afford to be complacent.
Gallipoli and its history in the media – Harvey Broadbent
Harvey Broadbent examines the way the media have presented the Gallipoli story over the past 90 years. For the first 50 years, the media presented the Anzacs at Gallipoli as creating a distinctive tradition by exhibiting qualities such as mateship and military prowess. This abruptly changed in the 1960s to a claim that the earlier message was essentially an overly generalised myth perpetuated to develop a national identity. Since the 1980s, a more balanced blend of these two messages has evolved.

Contributed Essays

State-sponsored terrorism: torture and the FLN in the Battle of the Casbah, Algiers, 1956-1957 – Bruce Short
Systematic use of torture was French government policy in the Battle of the Casbah from June 1956 to September 1957. The wider ramifications of this policy for France and the international community are described, including France’s relations with the United Nations and the role of the Maghreb nationalists and the Afro-Asian bloc. The impact of the 1957 Suez Crisis is also explored, together with who was responsible for initiating the torture policy, why France fought such a bitter conflict, and the over all human costs of the war.
What is there to tell? – Bill Phillips
Recognising the desire of new generations to learn what war was like f o r those who have fought for Australia and the frequent reluctance of those who have fought to share their experiences, Bill Phillips has drawn on his diaries to record a typical day in the life of an Australian infantryman on Bougainville in 1945

Biography

Who was …… Charles Henry Brand? – A. J. Sweeting [edited by David Leece]
Major-General C. H. Brand, CB , CMG, DSO, a Boer War veteran, joined the permanent military forces in 1905. In the Great War, he was brigade major of 3rd Brigade at the Gallipoli landing (1915) and later commanded the 8 Battalion at Steele’s Post. In France and Flanders (1916 – 1918), he commanded 4th Infantry Brigade. Post-war, he held senior army staff appointments until retiring in 1933, and then represented Victoria in the Senate until 1947. He was president of The United Service Institution of New South Wales in 1924.

Book Reviews

From cadet to colonel: the record of a life of active service by Sir Thomas Seaton (1866) Spoken from the front: real heroes from the battlefields of Afghanistan edited by Andy McNab – both reviewed by David Leece
With Britain again at war in Afghanistan, it is instructive to compare the current experience with that of the 19th century Little has changed fundamentally over the last 160 years . From cadet to colonel is an officer’ s diary of the campaigns of the British and Indian armies in Afghanistan and India from 1822 to 1860. Spoken from the front pro v ides an insight into modern war fighting at the tactical level as experienced by British service personnel in Afghanistan between 2006 and 2008.
Mont St Quentin: a soldier’s battle by Bill Billett – reviewed by Gordon Maitland
I would have liked to have reported favourably on this book, but, I cannot. The book comprises 184 pages, but only 68 pages are given to the actual battle. The author appears to have read widely (but only from British sources) and adds a deal of padding without regard to the relevance of the material.
The Australian Light Horse by Roland Perry – reviewed by Roland Millbank
There have been a number of books written on the Australian Light Horse so I approached this book seeking a new perspective on this well-known chronicle of the Great War . I did not find a convincing one . That said, The Australian Light Horse is a very readable story.
First blood: Australia's first great sea battle by Larry Writer – reviewed by Richard Francis
This is the latest book on the victory of the light cruiser, HMAS Sydney, over the elusive German commerce raider, SMS Emden, in the Indian Ocean early in the first year of Word War 1. While the story is well known and worthy of a fresh approach, this book fails to satisfy any serious nautical reader, despite being well-researched.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover The Defence Signals Directorate Cyber Security Operations Centre on 13 January 2010. It assesses cyber threats to Australia and coordinates responses to cyber incidents of national importance . It is staffed by information technology experts, engineers, analysts and scientists. Cyber threats are a growing risk to national security and became increasingly so during 2009. [Photo: Department of Defence].

  United Service, Volume 60, Number 4, December 2009

Click Here for full size pdf of Summer 2009 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Comment and Opinion

Pakistan – David Leece
Brigadier David Leece comments on the successes and failures of the 2009 ‘fighting season’ in Pakistan.

Australia’s Defence White Paper and China – David Leece
Brigadier David Leece comments on China’s response to Australia’s recently released defence policy.

Lectures and Presentations

The future of the Royal United Services Institute – Chris Richie
Vice Admiral Chris Ritchie, the National President, presents a strategic review of the Royal United Services Institute in Australia, concluding with his vision for its development over the next five years.
Border Protection Command – Kevin Downs
Border Protection Command (BPC) is the Australian Government’s lead organisation for security response in the Australian maritime domain. It is a standing multi-agency task force, which, during a civil maritime emergency, may draw on officers from many commonwealth, state and territory government agencies as well as civilian contractors, under the operational control of a two-star admiral, to address the threat. Wing Commander Kevin Downs outlines the role and composition of BPC and explains how it executes its function.
The State Emergency Service of New South Wales – Murray Kear
Commissioner Murray Kear explains the role of the State Emergency Service and how it fits into the wider emergency management framework which addresses natural disasters and other emergency incidents in New South Wales. The State Emergency Service is the lead combat agency for flood, storm and tsunami. It also supports other combat agencies when they have the lead in disasters and emergencies such as bushfires, road-crash rescues in regional areas, and search and rescue (urban, alpine and bush).

Biography

Who was ……. Charles Rosenthal? – A. J. Hill [edited by David Leece]
Major-General Sir Charles Rosenthal was a citizen artilleryman who in the Great War rose to command the 2nd Australian Division during the final offensives of 1918. After the War, he was President of the United Service Institution of New South Wales, a Sydney alderman and a member of the New South Wales Parliament. During World War II, he was Administrator of Norfolk Island.

Obituary

Private Edward Kenna, VC – Gordon Maitland
Private Edward (Ned) Kenna, 2/4th Australian Infantry Battalion, 6th Australian Division, won the Victoria Cross during an attack on the Japanese at Wirui Mission (near Wewak), New Guinea, on 15 May 1945. He died last July and was accorded a State Funeral at St. Patrick’s Roman Catholic Cathedral, Melbourne.

Book Reviews

The proud 6th: an illustrated history of the 6th Australian Division 1939 – 1946 by Mark Johnston – reviewed by Michael Hough
The 6th Australian Division was the first infantry division to be raised as part of the 2nd Australian Imperial Force in 1939. The author combines a compelling treatment of the human level of military operations, an attractive writing style that makes complex war situations readily understandable, and an excellent use of photographs from war archives and personal diaries – a most impressive and highly readable book.
Sydney cipher and search: solving the last great naval mystery of the Second World War by Captain Peter Hore – reviewed by Richard Francis
This is the latest book on the discovery of the wrecks of HMAS Sydney and the German auxiliary cruiser HSK Kormoran in 2008. It is a gripping book, so well written that it is impossible to put down. The author has been involved in research on Sydney for nearly 10 years and while there was not much new to discover in the official records, his measured application in partnership with wreck hunter David Mearns delivered the goods.
Somme mud: the war experiences of an Australian infantryman in France 1916 – 1919 by E. P. F. Lynch (Will Davies, editor) – reviewed by David Leece
The Great War has spawned some remarkable books over the 90 years since its cessation, yet this book is among the best of them. It describes trench warfare on the Western Front as experienced by the common soldier – in this case an Australian infantry private who fought in each of the major campaigns from late 1916 to the war’s end.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover HMAS Darwin in the South China Sea on 15 October 2009 during Exercise Bersama Lima 2009, a Five-Power Defence Arrangements exercise involving defence forces from Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore and the United Kingdom [Photo: Department of Defence].

  United Service, Volume 60, Number 3, September 2009

Click Here for full size pdf of Spring 2009 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Comment and Opinion

Australia’s Defence White Paper 2009 – David Leece
The Commonwealth Government released its long-anticipated Defence White Paper 2009, which sets out its defence policy for the next two decades, on 2 May 2009. Here, Brigadier David Leece outlines its main provisions.

Lectures and Presentations

Defence White Paper 2009: what does it mean for the Australian Defence Force Reserves? – Greg Melick
Major General Greg Melick outlines the implications of the Defence White Paper 2009 for the Navy, Army and Air Force Reserves. It requires them to make an even greater contribution to operational capability and to current operations than they have done in the very busy decade just past. Operational deployment at some stage of an individual’s career will be expected as a natural consequence of part-time service in the Australian Defence Force.
HMAS AE2 – Terence Roach
On 25 April each year, Australians focus on the heroic exploits of the Australian Army at Gallipoli. As the soldiers landed on the beaches, however, some 80 kilometres away in the Dardanelles Strait, Australian sailors in the submarine, HMAS AE2, were on a hazardous mission to support their brothers-in-arms ashore. Here, Commodore Terry Roach tells their story and then outlines recent steps to commemorate their deeds and secure the wreck of the AE2.

Contributed papers

The new Armed Forces Act of the United Kingdom – Nigel Evans
Britain has replaced its single-service discipline acts with a single tri-service act. Here, Nigel Evans explains the background to these changes and outlines the key provisions of the new legislation.
The Indian Mutiny – John Muir
With the British Army currently battling a Pashtun insurgency in southern Afghanistan, it can be instructive to recall how the British Army has dealt with previous uprisings in southern Asia. In this extract from his unpublished memoirs, the late Private John Muir recounts his experiences as a private soldier in the 42nd Regiment during the Indian Mutiny of 1857, which was a serious challenge to British rule in India.

Biography

Who was ……. John Soame Richardson? – David Leece
Major-General J. S. Richardson, CB, a veteran of the Crimean (1855) and Maori (1860-61 and 1862-64) wars, was Commandant of the New South Wales Military Forces from 1865 to 1892. He commanded the New South Wales Contingent during the Soudan Expedition (1885) and founded The United Service Institution of New South Wales in 1888.

Book Reviews

Escapes and incursions: Sabah 1942-45 by Kevin Smith – reviewed by Roland Millbank
Escapes and Incursions is three, separate, interwoven stories. There is the story of the Australian prisoners of war; there is the story of the official attempts to harass the Japanese and rescue the prisoners (Z Force); and finally, there are the stories of the local people who risked everything, including their families, to help advance the allies to victory over Japan.
The Mississippi Valley in the Civil War by John Fiske – reviewed by Priscilla Leece
John Fiske, a noted 19th century American historian, succinctly outlines the strategy and tactics of the major western battles during the American Civil War. The reader emerges with a clear understanding of the naval and land campaign that led the collapse of the Confederacy’s western flank with the destruction of Hood’s army at Nashville in December 1864.
The longest siege: Tobruk, the battle that saved North Africa by Robert Lyman – reviewed by Michael Hough
The Longest Siege is a comprehensive, tactical-level review of the siege of Tobruk, a strategic port in North Africa, by the Axis and its successful defence by the Allies during World War II.
Military of the Hunter: citizen defence forces of Newcastle and the Hunter Valley 1855 to 2005 edited by L B Kelly – reviewed by David Leece
Military of the Hunter records the important contribution made by the citizen naval, military and air force units of Newcastle and the Hunter Valley of New South Wales to the defence of Australia over the past 150 years. It is a valuable contribution to the military and social history of both the Colony of New South Wales and the later Commonwealth of Australia.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover Soldiers of Australian Monitoring and Reconstruction Task Force 2 on patrol in the Baluchi Valley, Oruzgan Province, Afghanistan, on 3 July 2009, seeking to improve security in the valley ahead of upcoming elections. MRTF2 is based on 1st Battalion Royal Australian Regiment Battle Group [Photo: Department of Defence].

  United Service, Volume 60, Number 2, June 2009

Click Here for full size pdf of Winter 2009 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Special Feature: The War in Afghanistan

Introduction: The war in Afghanistan and its wider context – David Leece
Australia is at war in Afghanistan and has been for more than seven years. In this introduction to a special feature on the war, Brigadier David Leece, editor of United Service, traces the history of the war and explains that, over the last two years, the Taliban has launched an increasingly successful insurgency war in southern and eastern Afghanistan from bases in Pakistan, with a view to making the continued occupation of Afghanistan impossible for the occupying governments to sustain politically, if not militarily. He outlines the current global context in which the war is being fought, focusing on those aspects of the wider global situation which are having a strong influence on the war, namely recent changes in United States foreign policy, the improving situation in Iraq, and the very difficult situation in Pakistan.
Strategic Level: Can the war in Afghanistan be won? – Jim Molan
On 24 February 2009, Major General Jim Molan addressed the Institute on the topic “Modern warfare – an Australian general’s perspective”, in which he drew heavily on his recent operational experience, especially as director of operations of allied forces in Iraq in 2004-05. In this essay, General Molan applies the insights he gained and lessons he learned in Iraq to the current conflict in Afghanistan. He observes that the conflict is not going well and that the probability is that we will lose unless we change our approach to it. He outlines what the allies must do to win and canvasses options available to the Australian government and defence force. While a synopsis of his views has been published in the daily press, this is the first time that the full paper has been published.
Operational and Tactical Levels: Securing Afghanistan’s future: Reconstruction Task Force Operations in Uruzgan Province – Stuart Yeaman
In his essay commencing on p. 10 on what must be done to win the war in Afghanistan, Major General Jim Molan observes that it is inevitable that the military will have to deliver reconstruction in the early stages of a counter insurgency campaign; and that this is now happening in Afghanistan. In this paper, Lieutenant Colonel Stuart Yeaman reports on the Australian reconstruction operations in Uruzgan Province in 2008 and their increasing success in winning ‘the battle for the hearts and minds’ of the local population.
Tactical Level: A day with the cavalry in Afghanistan – Hayden Archibald
Major Hayden Archibald, then a captain on exchange with the United States 101st Combat Aviation Brigade, describes a day in the life of a helicopter pilot in Afghanistan in 2008.
Tactical Level: Senior Taliban leader killed in Oruzgan – Department of Defence
A senior Taliban insurgent leader, Mullah Abdul Bari, was killed in Oruzgan Province, Afghanistan, in March 2009 in an operation by Australian Special Forces and Afghan National Army troops.

Lectures and Presentations

Mine warfare and clearance diving in the Royal Australian Navy: strategic need and future capability – Martin Brooker
The Australian Navy Mine Warfare and Clearance Diving Group was formed in 2001 from the Australian Mine Warfare and Clearance Diving Forces as part of a reorganisation of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). The group’s function is to manage all inputs, services and resources needed to deliver the mine warfare and clearance diving capabilities required to fight and win at sea and to contribute to military support operations. In this paper, Captain Martin Brooker outlines the strategic need for a mine warfare and clearance diving capability in the RAN, the history of the capability and future requirements.

Cover

Australian and Afghan National Army engineers, assisted by local Afghan civilians, constructing a creek crossing in Uruzgan Province, Afghanistan, in 2008. The war in Afghanistan is the main theme of this issue of United Service. Note: the provincial name is spelt variously “Uruzgan” and “Oruzgan”. [Photo: Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 60, Number 1, March 2009

Click Here for full size pdf of Autumn 2009 CoverISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Comment and Opinion

Editorials
National Security Statement
comment on the statement by the Prime Minister to Parliament on 4 December 2008
Defence White Paper
comment on the white paper due to be released by mid 2009
Re-building Australia’s Shipping Industry
comment on a Commonwealth parliamentary standing committee report on a 2008 inquiry into coastal shipping policy and regulation
Letter on Infantry Morale

Biography

Trooper Mark Gregor Strang Donaldson, VC – Department of Defence
Trooper M. G. S. Donaldson has been awarded the Victoria Cross for Australia for most conspicuous acts of gallantry in action in a circumstance of great peril in Oruzgan Province, Afghanistan. This article includes a biography of Trooper Donaldson, his Victoria Cross citation and a brief history of the Victoria Cross.

Lectures and Presentations

Defence white papers: an alternative view – Neil James
Australia’s Defence white papers have a poor record. There has been confusion of defence policy with defence strategy; and illogical attempts to predict the future in detail and then narrowly configure the defence force accordingly – with disastrous results. Previous white papers were driven by the funding thought to be available politically. Instead, there should have been robust assessments of our strategic situation and only then decisions made about what could be afforded and what would have to be risk-managed otherwise. Neil James considers that prospects are better for the white paper due to be released in early to mid-2009. In this paper, he outlines what he considers has gone wrong in the past and what needs to be done to ensure that future white papers make an intellectually robust and effective contribution to Australia’s defence preparedness.
International security in 2008: the year in review – Rory Medcalf
2008 saw many challenges to international security. In this paper, Rory Medcalf highlights the ones that he considers were of most significance from the perspective of Australia’s national security, focusing on events that tell us something about how our world will be five, ten or twenty years from now and drawing out lessons from them for our future defence and security policy, including the forthcoming Defence white paper.

Commemorative Feature

The Western Front 1918: victory and armistice – Philip Carey
After more than three years of stalemate and grinding frustration, accompanied by extremely heavy casualties, warfare on the Western Front suddenly broke into a fierce war of manoeuvre that left both sides reeling between the exaltation of astounding success and the deep despondency of looming defeat. The Australian Imperial Force, though lucky to miss the ferocity of the German spring offensive, nevertheless helped to stem the tide and go on to play a significant part in at least the beginning of an astonishing fight back by the British Armies in France in the last 100 days of the War. In this second of two articles [The first was P. R. Carey (2008). The Western Front 1918: an advance towards victory. United Service 59 (3), 21-24.], Philip Carey traces that remarkable turn of events after 8 August 1918.

Book Reviews

Churchill and Australia by Graham Freudenberg – reviewed by Ken Broadhead
This book covers the extraordinary saga of Churchill’s relationship with Australia from 1907 to 1955. Churchill, although widely admired in Australia, is portrayed here as totally focused on the security of Britain and the use of Dominions’ assets to support that security, irrespective of their interests and wishes. Freudenberg concludes that the principal lesson that Australians should draw from this relationship is the extent to which we must rely upon ourselves. This book will be hailed as an Australian masterpiece.
Soldiers without borders: beyond the SAS a global network of brothers-in-arms by Ian McPhedran – reviewed by David Leece
There comes a time in most military careers when ‘regimental soldiering’ is clearly coming to an end and a decision has to be made about what to do next – learn to ‘fly a military desk’ or carve out a new career in the civilian world. Soldiers without borders tells the stories of some 40 former members of Australia’s elite Special Air Service (SAS) Regiment, who, when they reached this mid-career decision-point, chose the civilian option.
Scarecrow army: the Anzacs at Gallipoli by Leon Davidson – reviewed by David Leece
Scarecrow Army is a brief account of the military contribution made by Australia and New Zealand to the Gallipoli Campaign from 25 April to 19 December 1915. While written for children aged 9 years and older, it is also suitable for anyone seeking a concise summary of the campaign and the key battles in which the Anzacs fought.

Cover

CLICK HERE to download the cover Trooper M. G. S. Donaldson, VC, Special Air Service Regiment, who has been awarded the Victoria Cross for Australia for most conspicuous acts of gallantry in Oruzgan Province, Afghanistan, on 2 September 2008. A biography of Trooper Donaldson, including his VC citation, is included in this issue - see above [Photo: Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 59, Number 4, December 2008

Click Here for full size pdf of Summer 2008 Cover– ISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Lectures and Presentations

The Australian Army – Lieutenant General Ken Gillespie
Australia’s naval, military and air forces have evolved into a unified Australian Defence Force which deploys purpose-specific joint task forces to conduct operations under the direction of Headquarters Joint Operations Command. In this paper, the new Chief of Army outlines the role of the Army within the new Australian Defence Force command and control paradigm, explains the need for Army’s structure to be adapted to that paradigm and provides an insight into the intellectual underpinning of Army’s ongoing modernisation.
Challenges facing the Australian Army’s Land Command – Major General Mark Kelly
Land Command has commanded the bulk of the Army’s conventional land forces since its inception as a functional command in November 1973. Since this time, Field Force Command (as it was known until 1987) and Land Command have been responsible for ensuring Army’s conventional forces are trained, equipped, manned and ready to deploy on operations. In this paper, the Land Commander details the contemporary challenges facing the command as it contends with a high operational tempo in a period of strategic uncertainty.
The Royal Australian Navy in Malaya, Malaysia and Singapore, 1948-1971 – Dr Ian Pfennigwerth
Between 1948, when Australia assumed strategic responsibility for British Commonwealth sea lines of communication to and from South-East Asia, and 1971, when the Five-Power Defence Arrangements came into effect, ships and men of the Royal Australian Navy served with almost unnoticed distinction in defending the newly emerging nations of Malaya, Malaysia and Singapore. In this paper, Ian Pfennigwerth outlines the role the Navy played during the Malayan Emergency in the 1950s, the early development of the Royal Malayan Navy and Indonesia’s ‘confrontation’ of Malaysia in the early-mid 1960s.

Contributed Essay

Fromelles 1916: Is the Australian Official History more ‘truthful’ than the British? – Mr Chris Baker
The report of the Battles Nomenclature Committee, published in May 1921, gave title to an inglorious episode that took place south of Armentières on 19 July 1916: the Attack at Fromelles. This essay examines the treatment of this event by the Australian and British official historians, including the different philosophical approaches guiding the historians, and assesses the relative accuracy and ‘truthfulness’ of the resulting histories.

Commemorative Feature

Coral and Balmoral: Vietnam, May-June 1968 – Brigadier David Leece
2008 is the 40th anniversary of the battle for fire support bases Coral and Balmoral, where some 2000 Australian and New Zealand soldiers were confronted by more than 5000 North Vietnamese Army and Viet Cong troops between 12 May and 6 June 1968. It was the largest Australian engagement of the Vietnam War and Australia’s largest land battle since World War II.

Book Reviews

Climate wars by Gwynne Dyer – reviewed by Dr David Leece
In 2007, Professor Alan Dupont forecast that global climate change would pose extraordinary challenges to 21st century society and become the international security issue of the century. Since then several books have been published that expand on this theme. They vary in quality, but this one by Gwynne Dyer is one of the best. I commend it particularly to younger Defence Force officers, staff college students, diplomats and the like who want a glimpse of the world over the span of their careers.
The Collins class submarine story by Peter Yule and Derek Woolner – reviewed by Rear Admiral Tony Hunt
The construction of the Collins-class submarines was Australia’s largest and most expensive military purchase of the 20th century. This book tells the story of the project from its origins in the late 1970s to the final delivery of the sixth boat in 2003. The nation now has a fleet of exceptional submarines, much advantage was gained within local industry and the political storm surrounding the project seems to have abated. This is a well constructed history of an important national project and essential pre-reading for future directors of major projects.

Cover

Lieutenant General K. J. Gillespie, AO, DSC, CSM, Chief of Army, who was the guest-of-honour at the Institute’s 120th Anniversary Dinner on 22 August 2008. General Gillespie’s address is included in this issue see above. [Photo: Department of Defence]

  United Service, Volume 59, Number 3, September 2008

Click Here for full size pdf of Spring 2008 Cover– ISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Lectures and Presentations

Countering the improvised explosive devices threat – Phil Winter, Alex Meiliunas and Steve Bliss
The improvised explosive device (IED) has become an enemy weapon of choice in the urban guerrilla warfare being waged against coalition forces in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Australian Defence Force has formed a counter-IED task force to study this development and to devise counter measures. In this paper, the nature of the threat is explained and actions being taken to counter it are outlined.

Contributed Review

Bioterrorism: menace of microbiological science – Bruce Short
Air Vice-Marshal Bruce Short, former Surgeon–General of the ADF, reviews the development of biological warfare technologies and the international safeguards and monitoring systems enacted since World War I. He describes some recent agents that have been weaponised by genetic engineering; outlines the Soviet experience with inhalational anthrax disease; and overviews recently developed global public health surveillance systems which may provide early warning of bioterrorism.

Commemorative Features

The Western Front 1918: an advance towards victory – Philip Carey
1918 has been described as the most dramatic and decisive year in British military history to that time. Defeat stared the Allies in the face early on, yet in the summer the British and French Armies staged a remarkable recovery and began to drive the German armies back. The Australian Imperial Force shared both the crises and successes of that year. In this first of two articles, Brigadier Philip Carey provides an overview of the dramatic events in the summer of 1918 that began the advance to final victory by the Entente Powers.
HMAS Armidale: a story of survival – Brian Swan
This is a story of an Australian corvette and her company who, while doing their job in the Timor Sea on 1December 1942, quite unexpectedly found themselves in an extraordinary situation. It tells of their courage and tenacity against the odds and how these young men rose above themselves to survive the most harrowing 9-day ordeal.

Book Reviews

Your number’s not dry by Eric Hayes – reviewed by Doug Roser
This is an easy-to-read insight into life in the Royal Air Force (RAF) from immediately after World War II until the early 1990s.
Gallipoli – attack from the sea by Victor Rudenno – reviewed by Ken Broadhead
This is a book about the British and French land and sea campaigns against the Turks in the Dardanelles in 1914-16 and the response of the Turks and their German and Austrian allies to them. It explains clearly just how inter-dependent the land and sea campaigns conducted by the British and French were and recounts how offensive naval operations preceded and were concurrent with the land operations right up to the evacuation.
Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War by G. F. R. Henderson – reviewed by Priscilla Leece
The Institute’s Ursula Davidson Library contains a treasure-trove of military literature dating from the late 18th century, and this biography of Lieutenant-General Thomas J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson of American Civil War fame, by one of Victorian England’s leading military historians, is among the best of them.

Cover

Signaller Sean McCarthy, Special Air Service Regiment, who was killed in a road-side bomb attack in Oruzgan Province, Afghanistan, on 8 July 2008, aged 25 years. In an article commencing on page 9, Brigadier Phil Winter and colleagues describe the improvised explosive devices threat and actions being taken by the Australian Defence Force to counter it. Photo: Department of Defence.

  United Service, Volume 59, Number 2, June 2008

Click Here for full size pdf of Winter 2008 Cover– ISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Commemorative Features

“Happy Valley”: the Ruhr Valley as Experienced by Bomber Command Aircrews in World War II – Flying Officer Ross Pearson
Ross Pearson provides an insight into what the aircrews of Bomber Command experienced when attacking targets in Germany’s industrial heartland during World War II.
Operation Pedestal – Brigadier David Leece
Operation Pedestal, which was undertaken in August 1942 to re-supply the island of Malta, is illustrative of the vital role played by the Merchant Navy in World War II.

Lectures and Presentations

Air Transport Operations – Past, Present and Future – Air Commodore ‘Jack’ Plenty
Air transport is an integral component of contemporary military operations. In the Royal Australian Air Force, this capability is provided by the Air Lift Group. This paper outlines the Air Lift Group, its genesis in World War II, its current capability and the challenges it now faces.
Researching Gallipoli: the Gallipoli Centenary Turkish Archives Research Project – Associate Professor Harvey Broadbent
Little is known from primary historical sources about the Turkish conduct of the Gallipoli campaign in 1915, which the Turks refer to as the Canakkale campaign. This knowledge gap is about to be filled by the Gallipoli Centenary Turkish Archives Research Project.
The Decline of Australian Shipping Since World War II – Dr John Spiers
At the end of World War II, the Australian-flagged merchant shipping industry was a vital sector of the Australian transport system. In the post-war period, it was unable to withstand the competitive forces ranged against it. The Government eventually established its own Australian National Line (ANL) which out-competed the private shipowners in many trades, but political decisions imposed on ANL led to its eventual unprofitability and sale in the 1990s. Australia’s extensive shipping needs are now met primarily by foreign-flagged and foreign-crewed vessels.

Book Review

The Beijing Conspiracy by Brigadier Adrian d’Hagé – reviewed by Brigadier David Leece
This is a novel by a highly experienced Australian soldier and security expert which exposes four different terrorist scenarios – contingencies that our intelligence, defence and security agencies must plan and rehearse for and for which they must maintain constant vigilance.

Cover

HMAS Larrakia training in the Timor Sea with one of the four Augusta Westland 109E helicopters recently leased by the Navy for four years from Raytheon Australia Pty. Ltd. Navy will use the helicopters for aircrew and fleet training, search and rescue, medical evacuation, and personnel transfers. Photo: Department of Defence.

  United Service, Volume 59, Number 1, March 2008

Click Here for full size pdf of Autmn 2008 Cover– ISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Anniversary Feature

The German offensive of March 1918 – Brigadier Philip Carey
To commemorate the 90th anniversary of the great German offensive on the Western Front in March 1918, Philip Carey summarises the strategic situation from both the German and British perspectives, outlines the tactics employed by both sides, and described the overall battle and its outcomes.

Lectures and Presentations

CLICK HERE to go to members login Sixty years of Australian peacekeeping and peace operations today – Major General Tim Ford
Peacekeeping ranks alongside warfighting and the provision of humanitarian aid as vital functions of the Australian Defence Force and Australian Federal Police. Here, Tim Ford traces the history of Australia’s involvement in peacekeeping and describes how the role has taken on a more robust and integrated nature since the end of the cold war.
Recent changes at the Australian War Memorial – Major General Steve Gower
Over the past decade, the Australian War Memorial in Canberra has embarked on an ambitious building programme and its exhibits and other services that it provides have undergone some profound changes. This paper outlines the changes that have been made and explains the vision and philosophy that have underpinned them.

Contributed Papers

52nd Lowland Division at Gallipoli: a second Flodden – Lieutenant Colonel David Murray
In the Gallipoli Campaign, the intensity of the fighting and the horrendous casualties suffered by the 52nd Lowland Division, particularly in the battles of 28 June and 12 July l915, well deserve the description, a “Second Flodden”.
What may the wreck of the WWII cruiser Sydney reveal? – Dr Tom Lewis
In November 1941, HMAS Sydney was patrolling off the West Australian coast when it chanced upon the German raider, Kormoran. In the ensuing engagement, both ships were severely damaged. The Kormoran sank and it is assumed that the Sydney also sank with the loss of all hands, but the wreck has never been found. In this paper, Tom Lewis indicates what the wreck, if found, might tell us about Australia’s greatest naval loss.

Obituaries

Brigadier Sir Frederick Chilton CBE, DSO – Brigadier David Leece
Mr Leo Mahony – Air Marshal David Evans

Book Reviews

Eagle Fleet: the story of a tanker fleet in peace and war by W. E. Lucas – reviewed by Stella Green
The Khyber Pass by Paddy Docherty – reviewed by David Leece
Maralinga: Australia’s nuclear waste cover-up by Alan Parkinson – reviewed by David Leece

Cover

The memorial to the Third Australian Division 1916-1918 at Sailly-le-Sec, France. The obelisk stands prominently on the ridge north of the Somme River some 7 km east of Corbie where, on 28-29 March 1918 during the major German offensive of March 1918, the Third Division (Major-General John Monash) halted a German drive on Amiens and stabilised the collapsing British front in that sector. This month is the 90th anniversary of that action and an anniversary feature commences on p. 9. The photograph was taken during the Institute’s pilgrimage to the Western Front in July 1998 on the 80th anniversary of the final offensives of World War I. Photo: David Leece.

  United Service, Volume 57, Number 4, December 2006

Click Here for full size pdf of Winter 2006 Cover– ISSN 1038-1554
Editor: Brigadier David Leece PSM RFD ED (Retd)

Lectures and Presentations

Article not available online The contribution of the Australian Federal Police to national and international security – Commissioner Mick Keelty
The Australian Federal Police is Australia's national policing agency, enforcing Commonwealth criminal law and protecting Commonwealth interests from crime, both within Australia and abroad. It is also Australia's international law representative and the chief source of advice to the Australian Government on policing issues. Here, Mick Keelty outlines the role it performs in national and international security.
Article not available online The Armidale Class patrol vessel – Peter Davey and Adrian Woodhouse, with David Leece
The Royal Australian Navy’s new Armidale Class patrol is at the leading edge of international patrol boat design based on an off-the-shelf commercial high-performance monohull adapted for the specific needs of the Navy to operate from the tropical conditions of Australia’s north to the South Tasman Rise Fishery which lies some 300 nautical miles south of Tasmania (48°S).
The RSL and the veteran community: future challenges – Major General Bill Crews
The Returned and Services League of Australia (RSL) no longer enjoys either the political power of its early years or the full support of all veterans. Yet it continues to be highly effective in representing the interests and providing for the welfare of veterans. Here, its national president briefly traces the events that have brought the RSL to this point and outlines the challenges that it and the wider veteran community now face.
Article not available online Australian codebreaking in Word War II – Captain Ian Pfennigwerth
Australians played a leading role in the breaking of Japanese codes both before and during World War II. Here, Ian Pfennigwerth describes the origins of the Australian codebreaking effort in the 1920s and traces its development and its contributions to Allied intelligence in the years leading up to and during the War in the Pacific.

Book and DVD Reviews

Article not available online Myth Maker: Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett; the Englishman Who Sparked Australia’s Gallipoli Legend by Fred and Elizabeth Brenchley – reviewed by Philip Carey
Article not available online Tobruk by Peter Fitzsimons – reviewed by Gordon Maitland
Article not available online Long Tan – the true story by Bruce Horsfield et al. – reviewed by David Leece

Cover

Commissioner M. J. Keelty, APM, Commissioner of the Australian Federal Police, who was the guest of honour at the Institution’s 118th Anniversary Dinner at Parliament House, Sydney on 18 August 2006. His after-dinner address is published at pp. 11 – 13 of this issue. Photo: Australian Federal Police.


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